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Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (North)
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
- Answer All the questions.
- Draw map and diagrams wherever necessary.
- Question No. V is on cartography
- Blind students attempt only VA, 52, 53 and 54 instead of V – B, C and D.
I. Answer the following in a word or sentences each: (10 × 1 = 10)
Which branch of Geography studies about heavenly bodies?
Astronomical Geography is the study of the heavenly bodies of the Space
What is Earth’s axis?
The Axis is an imaginary line joining the north and south pole of the globe.
Give an example for non-ferrous mineral.
What is the percentage of Nitrogen in the Atmosphere?
78% of Nitrogen in the Atmosphere
Mention the average Atmospheric pressure in the sea level of the Earth.
The average atmospheric pressure at the sea level is 1013.25 mb
Which instrument is used to measure depth of the ocean?
Fathometer is the instrument used to measure the depth.
Why is the Earth called ‘Living Planet’?
Earth is called Living Planet because it is the home of various forms of life.
In which Island of India is ‘Indira Point’ situated?
Indira point located at Great Nicobar Island.
Name the longest river in South India
Godavari is the longest (1465km) and largest river of south India
Which is called ‘Mawsynram’ of South India’?
Agumbe of Karnataka is ‘Mawsynram’ of South India’
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two 2 or 3 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
Why Geography called as the ‘Science of Earth’?
Geography is fundamentally a description of the earth. It deals with the varied natural or physical factors of environment, such as land forms, mountains water bodies, minerals, climate, soils, natural vegetation and plains.
Name any two branches of Human Geography.
Cultural Geography, Historical Geography, Economic Geography, Agricultural Geography.
Mention any two causes of Earthquakes.
Folding, Faulting, volcanic activity, landslides are the major causes for earthquakes. Earth quakes are also caused by human activities such as mining, nuclear explosion.
Distinguish between Active and Extinct Volcanoes.
Active Volcanoes: are those volcanoes which erupt regularly or frequently e.g. Mt. Etna in Sicily and Stromboli of Italy, Mauna Loa.
Extinct volcanoes: are volcanoes which have not been active for considerable period of time .There are no possibilities of future eruption in these volcanoes. These volcanoes are also called Sleeping or Dead volcanoes. Narcondum, Vesuvius and Krakatoa are examples of extinct volcanoes.
What is Biological Weathering?
The roots of the plant grow through soil and in the cracks of rocks to find water and minerals. As the roots grow deep in the rock they widen and disintegrate the rocks, The burrowing animals like rats, rabbits, ants influence in the braking up of rocks. The human activities on the earth surface like mining, agriculture, quarrying, and deforestation rocks are disintegrated on a large scale.
Name the two types of Environment.
Refer Page No. 109, Q. No. 1.
Mention any two types of Biomes.
- Physical Environment
- Cultural Environment
Write the latitudenal and Longitudinal extent of India.
The latitudinal extension is 8°4’ N to 37°6’ N and the longitudinal extent is 68° 7’ E to 97°23 E .The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is around 30° The country stretches to 3214km from North to South and 2933 km from West to East.
Name any two ghats of western ghats.
Thalghat, Bhjorghat, Palghat, Agumbe ghat, Shiradighat, Charmadighat are the major Ghats of the Western Ghats.
Name any four tributaries of river Indus.
The Sutlej, Ravi, Jhelum, Chenab, and the Beas are the major tributaries of Indus river.
Write any four factors that affect soil erosion.
high temperature, Rainfall wind and waves are the natural agents, Deforestration, over grazing shifting cultivation, unscientific methods of agriculture causse Soil erosion.
Mention any four measures of conservation of forest.
Protection and preservation of forest is known as conservation. The important measures of conservation of forest are:
- Forest fires, pests and diseases should be controlled through the scientific methods.
- Encroachers of forest area should be severely punished.
- Forest education, research and training should be expanded through programmes like vanamahotsava, social forestry, and reforestation.
Industrial and mining activities in the forest regions should be compensated by reforestation.
III. Answer any EIGHT of the following in 25 to 30 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Explain the proofs in support of the spherical shape of the earth.
There are several proofs to regard the earth as a spherical shape of the Earth.
a. Heavenly bodies appear to be spherical: The Sun, the Moon and other heavenly bodies appear to be spherical when viewed from different position. The earth is one of them and hence it must also be spherical in shape.
b. The Lunar Eclipse: The lunar eclipse proves that the Earth is in spherical shape. During lunar eclipse when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon, the shadow of the Earth falls on the Moon. Aristotle was the first scholar to show this by looking at the shadow of the Earth on the lunar surface. Later, this was ascertained by Ptolemy. This is considered to be the oldest proof in respect of the shape of the Earth.
c. Sunrise and Sunset: The time of Sunrise and Sunset is not the same everywhere in the world. This is due to spherical shape of the Earth. If the Earth were to be flat all places on the Earth would have had sunrise and sunset at the same time everywhere in the world.
d. Circumnavigation: Circumnavigation of the world can only be possible when the Earth is in spherical shape. If one start on a sea voyage towards the east, by moving constantly in the same direction, he would be able to complete a circle of the world and reach the original point form where he had started.
e. The Bed Ford level experiment: Dr.Alfred Russel Wallace conducted an experiment in 1956, along the Bed Ford level canal area in Britain. It is the most convincing proof of the curvature of the Earth. He fixed three poles of same height at an interval of about mile apart and observed through a telescope. It was found that the pole in the middle was higher than other two poles. It is due to the curvature of the Earth. If the Earth were to be flat all the poles would have the same horizontal level.
f. Sighting a ship: A ship on the sea approaching the coast, when seen from the short does not come into view all at once. The observer first sees the mast and then the hull and finally the whole ship. A ship moving away from the coast disappears gradually and finally out of view. If the Earth were to be flat the whole ship would have come into view.
g. Aerial and Satellite Photographs: The photographs taken by the cosmonauts in the recent decades and satellites have provided ample proof to show that the earth is spherical in shape.
Biefly explain the effects of the Rotation of the eath.
Rotation of the Earth causes various effects. They are:
a. Day and night caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis. This is because parts of the earth which face the sun have day and the parts which do not face the sun have night. This happen with precision and progression and not suddenly – The time when the sun beings to cast its light in the sky is known as dawn. At noon. The sun is overhead. At dusk, it is twilight and the sun is seen disappearing in the sky. At night, it is completely dark.
b. The duration of the day and night is not equal at all places on the earth because of the inclined axis. The length of days varies with respect to the seasons as well as latitude
c. The sun, the moon and the stars seem to move from east to west. This is because the earth spins from west to east. This effect is similar to what one experiences while looking at trees from a moving train.
d. The speed of rotation has created a centrifugal force resulting in a bulge in the middle portion of the earth and flattened top at the poles.
e. The earth’s rotation affects the movement of water in the oceans. The tides are deflected because of the rotation of the earth.
f. Rotation causes difference in time over various places on the earth.
g. The Earth acts as huge magnet: The one end of the needle of the compass always points towards the north magnetic pole. That means, the earth acts as a magnet. The rotation . of the earth causes the earth to act as a magnet.
h. Rotation of the Earth influences the movement of ocean water, particularly ocean currents.
i. The rise and fall in the sea level is called tides. Rotation of the Earth causes the lacing of water bodies to the Moon. The gravitational attraction of the Moon and position of the water bodies cause tides. This is a regular phenomenon due to Earth’s rotation.
Describe the factors affecting physical weathering.
The disintegration of rocks without any chemical change in their compost in is known as mechanical or physical weathering. The disintegration of rocks occurs mainly due to the influence of temperature variation, frost action, wind action, rainwater, etc.
A. Surface are heated and expand. During the nights the rock surfaces are cooled due to , fall in temperature, rocks contact. The repetition of exemptions and contraction causes tension and stress which leads to cracks in the rocks. Then the rocks disintegrate into i blocks. This process is known as Block disintegration, Rocks are made of different types of minerals.
So the different parts of the same rock mass react differently to temperature. This leads to differential expansion and contraction inside the rocks. The rocks break up into smaller grains. This process of weathering is, called “Granular disintegration”. Due to variat Temperature in the upper and lower layers, the outer layers of rocks peel out into the uric shells. This process of weathering is known as “Exfoliation”.
B. Frost: Rocks are disintegrated due to freezing and thawing of water in the cracks or joints in the rocks. This frost action is more important in the temperate and cold regions. The water present in the cracks of rocks freezes during the night due to fall in temperature below freezing point. When water freezes it expands by 1/10 its volume. It thaws (melts) during the day, due to increase of temperature and it contracts in volume. This alternative freezing and melting of water widens other cracks in the rocks, splits and breaks then into blocks. This is known as frost shattering.
C. Rain: Sometimes, when rain falls suddenly on highly heated rocks in hot desert numerous cracks are developed. This is just like a heated chimney of a lamp, when a drop of water falls on it. The repetition of this mechanism causes disintegration of rocks. In humid region, when torrential rain occurs, the drops strike the rock surface and loosen the particles.
D. Wind: In the deserts the wind blows with greater speed carrying with it sand and rock materials, they collide with each other or strike against the loose rock and cause weathering. In deserts the wind cause this type of weathering on a large scale.
E. Sea waves: Sea waves strike the costal rocks. Repeated striking enlarges the incipient joints. Fractures and cause breaking of rocks into small blocks. Weathering also takes place due to hydraulic pressure, abrasion and attrition caused.
F. Slope: A steep slope helps in weathering. In mountainous and hilly area, sometimes, on account of gravity, blocks of rocks move down the slope while rolling down the slope, they strike against other block and break up into pieces.
G Gravitation: the gravity of Earth makes the huge rocks to roll towards the slope. Rolling rocks strike against each other and break up into pieces.
Describe the landforms associated to work of a river.
River is an important external agent of denudation on the ever-changing face of the Earth. The work of river is more or less common in all the drainage systems of the world.
The work of river consists of three closely interrelated activities.
1. Erosional work: The process of wearing and taking away the part of rock is known as ‘Erosion’. It depends upon the volume and velocity of water, nature of slope and the nature of rocks. The erosional work of the river is performed in two ways.
a. The Mechanical and b. The Chemical erosion.
There are various Iandforms associated to erosional work of river.
a. ’V’ Shaped valley: In the mountain course the speed of the river is greater and volume is less. As the water rushes down the steep slopes there is maximum vertical , or later erosion. The rapid down cutting or vertical erosion results in the formation of ‘V’shaped valley.
b. Gorge: A deep and narrow valley with steep rocky, sides in the river course is known as ‘Gorge’. They are formed by the regular vertical cutting by the rivers in the valleys eg. Narmada gorge.
c. I shape valley: Avey steep, deep river valley formed by the river, lookinglike T, is called ‘I’ Shaped valley. These are very deep compared to gorges.
d. Canyon: It is a wide, deep and steep valley almost with vertical walls like feature found in the arid or semi arid regions is called ‘Canyon’ eg. Grand Canyon of River Colorado in USA.
e. Potholes: These are the small depressions in the rocky beds of other river valley. They are formed by corrosion. Pebbles, sand and small rocks carried by the river swirled around on the river bed. This action erodes the rock on the river bed forming potholes.
f. Waterfalls: Huge volume of water falling from a great height along the course of a river is called “Waterfalls’. They are formed when the hard and soft rocks come in the way of flowing river. The soft rock gets eroded faster and hard rock does not erode easily. Therefore huge amount of water falls from great height and creates waterfalls. Eg. The Jog falls, The Angel falls, The Victoria falls.
g. River Capture: It is formed mainly due to head-ward erosion by the river near its source. When the source of a river is captured by another major and strong river it is called‘River Capture’.
2. Transportational work: The process of carrying away the eroded materials is known as ‘Transportation’. The rock materials and eroded particles carried by a river is called its Load. The transportation capacity of a river is based on velocity of water, volume of water, load, slope, smooth valley floor etc.
The major landforms associated with the transportational work of the river are:
a. Alluvial fans: The term alluvium refers to the debris transported and deposited by rivers. When the fast flowing river enters the plateau or plain region, it experience sudden decline in gradient and obstruction in its path. Due to obstruction of the river spreads and deposits many of its light materials in fan shape known as ‘alluvial fans’.
b. Alluvial cones: In the plateau and foot hill region when the river spreads out, the eroded materials carried by the river is deposited in conical shape called ‘Alluvial cones’.
3. Depositional work: The process of carrying and accumulating the eroded materials by the river at the lower course is called ‘deposition’. In the lower course due to gentle slope the river slows down and deposits most of its materials on the banks, course and the mouth.
The important landforms resulting from depositional work of the river are:
a. Meanders: In the lower course, river flows slowly in zig zag or curved manner due . to smaller obstruction in its path. A curve or loop formed by the river in its path is called ‘Meander’. When the river course formed by such crescent shaped loops due to continuous lateral deposition it is called meandering course.
b. Ox-bow Lakes: The ox-bow lakes are formed by depositional and erosional actions taking place simultaneously and they are a result of excessive meandering. The River which flows through the shorter route leaving the curve of the meander cut off and crescent shaped lake is formed known as‘Ox-bow lakes’.
c. Flood Plains: When the river is in floods the water overflows on its bank and spreads in the surrounding regions. The silt carried by the water gets deposited in these areas and creates flat plains on both the banks of the rive known as ‘Flood Plains’.
d. Delta: A triangular shaped alluvial deposition forced at the mouth of the river is called ‘Delta’. Important types of deltas are
a. Arcuate or Common delta
b. Bird-foot delta
e. Distributaries: As the river approaches the sea or Ocean, due to reduction in gradient, joining of tributaries, its volume increases, speed decreases hence, the rivet begins to break up into a number of branches from the main river called ‘Distributaries’.
f. Estuary: Estuaries are the tidal mouth of a river having a narrow, gradually widening lay at the mouth. In Estuary River water is mixed with seawater. Eg. The Narmada estuary, The Kali estuary.
Briefly explain the factors affecting the distribution of temperature.
The distribution of temperature on the surface of the earth is not uniform. It varies from. region to region due to various factors. The various factors affecting the distribution of atmospheric temperature are:
a. Latitude or distance from the equator: Places close to the equator have higher temperature and are warmer than places awaylfom the equator This is because the Sun rays reach the Earth after passing rays reach the Earth after passing through the layers of the atmosphere. In the low latitudes the Sun rays are direct and have to travel a lesser extent through the atmosphere. Hence, the heat of these rays is more intense. But in high latitudes the Sun rays are slanting and have to passes through a greater extent of atmosphere.
b. Altitude: Temperature decreases with altitude. This is because the heat absorbing elements are found in lower altitude. So the places near the Earth’s surface are warmer than places higher up. This is because air near the surface is denser and contains gases like carbon dioxide, water vapour and other gases. Temperature decreases with increase in height at an average rate of l°C/165m or 6.4°C/1000m.
c. Distance from the sea: this factor also influence on the distribution of temperature and differential heating of land and water. Land gets heated faster compared to water. Water takes longer time to get heated and to cool than land. Hence during the day when the land gets heated quickly, water takes longer time and remains cool. Therefore, during the day time a land gets more heat than the surrounding water bodies.
d. Ocean currents: It increase or decrease the temperature of the Earth’s surface. Warm ocean currents along the coast make the coastal areas warmer and cold currents reduce the temperature and cool the coastal areas.’ Warm currents can be noticed on the eastern margins of the continents in the middle latitude, while .it is the concurrents flow at the western margins of the continents. Gulf stream a warm currents increases the temperature in the eastern coast of U.S.A and California bold current decreases the temperature of the western coast of U.S.A.
e. Winds: Winds that blow from the lower latitudes are warm and make the places warmer. On the other hand, winds that blow from the higher latitudes are cold and make the places cooler. Winds that blow from the sea bring plenty of rain especially if they are warm winds. While off shore winds hardly bring any rain.
f. Clouds: During the day clouds prevent Insolation from reaching the Earth’s surface. Clouds also prevent three escape of terrestrial’s radiation during the night. Clear sky Permits insolation readily during the day time and allow the rapid escape of terrestrial radiation during the night.
Explain the topography of the ocean floor with a diagram.
On the basis of the depth, the ocean floor can be divided into four zones, parts or relief features. They are.
1. The continental Shelf: The gently sloping portion of the continent or land that lies submerged below other sea is called the continental shelf. The continental shelf has a very gentle slope. It extends form the shore line to depths between 180 and 200 meters. Average width of the continental shelves is about 48km. The extent of the continental shelf depends on the relief of the broadening land masses.
If the coastal area is a plateau area, the continental shelf will be very broad. On the other hand, if the coastal region is hilly or mountainous, the continental shelf will be very narrow or even absent for example the Atlantic Ocean has 2.3%, the Pacific Ocean has 5.7% and the India Ocean has 4.2%.
2. The continental slope: The zone of steep slope that descends from the edge of the continental shelf to the deep sea plains is called “continental slope”. It is the transitional zone lying between the continental shelf and the deep sea plains. The continental slope is very steep. It extends from 182 meters to 3.600 meters. The angle of the continental slope is 2 to 5 degre3es or even more. It occupies only 8.5% of the total area of the ocean floor. But it varies from ocean to ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has broader continental slopes and accounts for 12.4%. But it is 7% of the Pacific Ocean and 6.5% of the Indian Ocean.
3. The deep sea plains: The level and rolling areas of the ocean floor are generally called deep sea plains or abyssal plains or the ocean plains. They lie between 3,000 and 6,000 meters below other surface of the ocean. They occupy vast area of the ocean floor and account for about 82.7% of the total sea floor. They cover about 90% in the Indian Ocean. Their depth ranges from 5,000 to 6,000 meters. They are covered by oozes, which are the remains of deep sea creatures and plants, and of red volcanic dust.
4. The Ocean Deeps: The long narrow and deep troughs on the ocean floor are known as ‘ocean deep’ or ‘trough’. They cover only 1% of the ocean floor. They are most common neat the coasts where young fold mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes abound. Some they are tectonic in origin. They are the deepest portions of the ocean. Deeps may be caused due to tectonic forces, i.e. faulting earthquakes etc. There are 57known deeps. Of these 32 are found in Pacific Ocean, 19in the Atlantic Ocean and 6 in the Indian Ocean. The deepest trench in the world is Challenger deep located in Mariana Trench to the west of Philippines in the North Pacific Ocean.
What is conservation of ocean? Mention the important measures.
Conservation of ocean means rational uses of ocean resources. So that a harmony between man’s ocean resource requirements and their availability could be maintained. The rational uses of ocean resources by the present generation and the preservation of ocean resources for the future generations, is known as conservation of ocean. It also means the protection of oceans and ocean resources against pollution caused by dumping of oceans and of industrial, agricultural and municipal wastes into oceans by man, oil spill from oil tankers, and nuclear explosions in sea and oceans.
Need for conservation of Oceans: There is a need for conservation of oceans due to the following reasons:
- If oceans are not conserved, all the living organism in the oceans either die or become unsuitable for human consumption.
- Oceans are the storehouse of pearls, corals and sponges. These resources have to be conserved.
- Oceans have oil and natural gas reserves. These reserves have to be conserved.
- Oceans are rich in minerals. These mineral resources have to be rationally exploited.
- Oceans allow the growth of innumerable species of plants. These plants have to be conserved.
- Oceans are the breeding centers of marine fisheries. Thousands of fishes are found in oceans. The marine fishery resources should be exploited rationally.
- Literacy and education programmes on marine features must be initiated and promoted.
- Proper law to be enacted to save sea and ocean.
World wise awareness programme must be arranged to show the pro and cons of the marine pollution etc.
Write the significance of Northern Plains.
- The Northern Plain plays a very significant role in the life of the people and economy of the country.
- The Northern plains have high concentration of population 45% of India’s population.
- They are helpful for agro-based industries and urbanization.
- The northern plains have fertile soil, uniform surface and perennial rivers-suitable for agriculture.
- The plains have encouraged the development of transport and communication.
- The rivers in the plain help in the development of inland water transportation.
- It has rich underground water, useful for irrigation and other activities.
- It has cultural and traditional importance.
- They have great social, religious and political significance.
Compare the North Indian rivers with South Indian rivers.
Briefly explain the factors that determine the climate of india.
The average weather condition of place for a long period like 30-33 years in known in known as climate. India’s climate is said to be “Tropical Monson”.
The main factors are monsoon winds.
(i) Location: The northern part of India lies in sub-tropical and temperate zone and the part lying to the south of the tropic of cancer come under tropical zone. The tropical zone being nearer to the Equator, experiences high temperature throughout the year, with small daily and annual range. Tropic of Caner 23 1/2° N latitude passes through the centre of the country. So India is situated both in the tropical and temperate region.
(ii) Mountain Ranges: The lofty Himalayan Mountains have prevented the cold winds of central Asia, and keep India warm. They are also greatly responsible for the monsoon rains in the country.
(iii) Distribution of Land and Water: India is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west and Bay of Bengal in the east, Indian Ocean in the south. These adjoining seas have influenced the climate of the country considerably. They influence the rainfall of the coastal region. Even the cyclones which originate from these seas regularly affect the weather condition.
(iv) The relief features of India also affect the temperature, air pressure, direction and speed of wind, the amount and distribution of rainfall. The windward side of Western Ghats and north east received high rainfall from June to September.
(v) Monsoon winds: The climatic conditions of other country are greatly influenced by monsoon winds. The winds blow in a particular direction during one season, but get reversed during the other season.
Describe the major types of forests in india.
The peninsular region of India has the largest forest cover with around 57% of the total forest area.
According to geo-climatic conditions, forests are classified into:
a. Evergreen Forests: These forests are found in the regions of heavy rainfall and high temperature. Tall umbrella shaped trees with dense assemblage is a prominent feature of this forest. The eve4rgree forest always looks green because various species of trees are found here and they shed leaves in different seasons.
The hardwood trees, rose wood, white cedar, toon, gurjan, chaplash, ebony, Mahogany, canes, bamboo, shisham etc. These are found in North-east India, Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar islands, parts of Assam and some areas of Himalayan foot hills.
b. The Deciduous forests: The deciduous forest covers a wide range of rainfall regimes. The trees of these forests seasonally shed their leaves. The Indian deciduous forest is found in a range of landscapes from the plains to the hills. These forests provide shelter to most endangered wild life in the country, such as the Tiger, Asian Elephant, Bison, Gaur etc. The deciduous forest are two types
(i) Moist Deciduous forests: The moist deciduous forests are found in wet regions, receiving annual rainfall between 100cm to 200cam and temperature of 25° C to 30° C. The trees of these forests shed their leaves during spring and early summer. They are found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, Chota Nagpur Plateau, the siwaliksetc.
(ii) The Dry Deciduous Forests: The dry deciduous forest are found I the areas where annual rainfall is between 50cm to 150 cm and temperature of 25° C to 30° C. Sal is the most significant tree found in this forest. Varieties of acacia and bamboo are also fund here. These forests are found in areas of central Deccan plateau, South-east of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
(iii) The mountain forests: As the name indicates these forests are confined to the Himalayan region, where the temperature is less compared to other parts of the country. The trees in this forest are cone shape with needle like leaves. The important trees are oak, fir, pin e spruce, silver fir, deodhar, devdar, juniper, picea chestnut etc. They provide softwood for making country boats, packing materials and sport articles.
c. The Desert forests: These forests are found in the areas of very low rainfall. Thorny bushes, shrubs, dry grass, acacia, cacti and babul are the important vegetation found in these forests. The Indian wild date known as ‘Khejurs”, is common in the deserts. They have spine leaves, long roots and thick fleshy stems in which they store water to survive during the long drought. These vegetations are found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana.
d. The Mangrove Forests: These forests occur along the river deltas (Ganga, Mahanadi. Godavari and Krishna) of eastern coast and also concentrated in the coastal areas of Katchch, Kathiawar, and Gulf of Khambar. The mangrove forests in the Ganga delta are called Sunder bans because, they have extensive growth of Sundari trees. The trees in these forests are hard, durable and are used in boat making and as fuel. In the recent years mangrove vegetation is being grown I the coastal areas to control effects of tidal waves and coastal erosion.
Briefly explain the distribution of flood prone area of india.
a. The Ganga basin: The badly affected states of the Ganga basin are U.P, Bihar and West Bengal. Besides the Ganga River, Sarada, Gandak and Ghagra cause flood in Eastern part of U.P. The Yamuna is famous for flooding Haryana, U.P and Delhi. Bihar experiences massive and dangerous flood every year by the Kosi. Rivers like the Mahanadi, Bhagirathi and Damodar also cause floods.
b. The Brahmaputra basin: The Brahmaputra along with its tributaries floods the areas of Assam and North West Bengal regions.
c. The Central India and Peninsular river basin: In odisha spilling over of river banks by the Mahanadi, Baitarnika and Brahmani causes havoc. Southern and central India experiences floods caused by the Narmada, Godavari, Tapti and Krishna during heavy rainfall. Cyclonic storms in the deltaic regions of the Godavari, Mahanadi and the Krishna flood the coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh.
IV. Answer any One of the following questions: (1 × 10 = 10)
What is Rock? Describe the different types of Rocks.
Rock refers to the hard and resistant materials of the earth’s crust. But scientifically rock includes even soft and loose materials like chalk, clay, etc. So, rock refers to any solid materials, hard or soft of which the crust of the earth is formed. All rocks do not have the same chemical composition. But minerals have their own chemical compost in and physical prosperities. .The earth’s crust is made up of various types of rocks
Types of Rocks: Rocks can be classified into three major groups on the basis of their origin or mode of formation. They are:
A. Igneous rocks: The term Igneous is derived from the Latin word “Ignis”, means lire. Thus the igneous rocks are formed by the cooling and solidification of molten material which is called magma. Igneous rocks are also called primary rocks, because they were the firs to be formed. As they are the rocks from which all other types of rocks are derived, they are also called parent rocks.
Igneous rocks are commonly classified on the basis of mode of formation into two major types.
- Intrusive rocks
- Extrusive rocks.
1. Intrusive rocks: The magma cannot escape out to the earth’s surface, it cols slowly inside the earth’s crust and hardens into rock. This type of rock is known as Intrusive Igneous rock. E.g. Granite and dolerite. These rocks can be divided into two type’s a. Plutonic rocks and b. Hybabyssal rocks.
a. Plutonic rocks: The rocks which are formed due to cooling of magma at great depth inside the earth are called Plutonic igneous rocks.
b. Hybabyssal rocks: These are intermediate rocks between the extruded volcanic rocks and the deep plutonic rocks. They are formed due to cooling and solidification of magma in cracks, pores, crevices etc.
2. Extrusive rocks: Rocks formed by cooling and solidification of lava on the surface of the Earth is called extrusive igneous rocks. E.g. Basalt.
B. Sedimentary Rocks: These rocks which are formed due to aggregation and compactness
of sediments are known as sedimentary. In other words, sedimentary rocks are formed bye day the deposition of sediments derived form older rocks, planets and animals remains by river, winds, glaciers etc and these sediments are hardened into rocks by pressure. As they are formed by the consolidation of sediments. They are called sedimentary rocks. They are also called stratified rocks,
a. Mechanically-formed rocks: The rock which have been formed form the accumulation of rock materials, derived form other rocks and have been cemented together are known as “ Mechanically formed rocks.” The mechanically formed rocks consist of sediments which have been carried and deposited by rivers, glaciers, winds or waves and cemented together with clay or line. On the basis of rock materials. These rocks can be divided into three main categories. They are: Rudaceous rocks, Arernaceous rocks and Argilious rocks.
b. Chemically formed rocks: The chemical often settle down and hardened to form rocks known as chemically formed rocks. For example: Gypsum and rock salt, running water dissolves and carries chemicals and where evaporation takes place, these chemicals are deposited at the mouth of springs, caves or caverns or in lakes. Rock salt and gypsum are formed form deposit of salt in strata on the beds of lakes.
c. Organically formed rocks: Organic rocks are formed form the remains of organisms, i.e. of animals and plants. Examples: coal, limestone etc. On the basis of lime and carbon content, organically formed rocks can be divided into two kinds, namely.
(i) Calcareous rocks: Calcareous rocks are formed mostly from the remains of living organisms. These rocks contain calcium carbonate or lime. They include limestoneand chalk. They are porous and soluble.
(ii) Carbonaceous rocks: These are formed due to the transformation of vegetative matter. Under the impact of heat and pressure the remains of plants are turned into hard layers. E.g. coal.
C. Metamorphic rocks: Rock which has been changes either in form or in composition without disintegration is called metamorphic rocks. These rocks are metamorphosed from igneous sedimentary rocks. Igneous and sedimentary rocks may undergo chemical and physical changes because of pressure and heat and form metamorphic rocks. The intense heat and pressure in the earth’s curst alters the composition and appearance of rocks completely or partially to produce a new type of rocks. In this manner metamorphic. rocks are formed. Marble, Diamond, Quartzite, Ruby, Emerald are the examples of metamorphic rock.
Explain the major pressure belts of the world with neat diagram.
The distribution of pressure is not equal on the earth’s surface. It changes from palace to place and time to time on the basis of air temperature and rotation of the earth. Any area in the atmosphere where air pressure is higher than in the surrounding areas is called “ High pressure”/ Thee are 4 high pressure belts and 3 low pressure belts on the earth’s surface.
Equatorial Low pressure belt: This belt lies between latitudes 5° N and 5° S. The Sun’s rays are almost vertical on the equator throughout the year. As a result, the temperature is uniformly high and pressure is low throughout the year. It is also known as “Doldrums”. The air gets warm and rises upward. Horizontal movement of air is absent and convectional currents occur. This is the zone of convergence of the trade winds.
Sub tropical high pressure belts: The air ascended in the form of convectional currents from the equatorial region partly descends in the between 30 to 40’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. The descending air has thus formed two high pressure zones known as subtropics high pressure belts. It is the zone from which trade and anti-trade winds originate. This belt is also known as “ horse altitudes’. It is dry and quite stable. The name horse latitude is given by the ancient sailors who used to transport horses on ships. Due to absence of strong winds, some times the ship could not move with horses. Hence sailors used to dump horses to make the ship move forward.
Sub Polar low pressure belts: In between polar high pressure knd sub-tropical high pressure belt, the sum-tropical low pressure belts are situated. They lies in between 60’ to 70’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. They are formed with spinning action of rotation of the earth and also uprising air as an effect of incoming cold polar winds.
Polar high pressure belts: The Polar Regions are characterized with low temperature. The air raised at the equator descends around the poles causing high pressure belts. The cold polar winds blow outward from this zone.
V. A. Answer any five of the following questions in a word or sentence each: (5 × 1 = 5)
What is a Map?
A map is defined as a symbolical and conventional representation of the earth or a portion f it drawn to scale on a flat surface and bounded by the geographical co-ordinates as viewed from above
Name any two essential features of a Map.
Title, Scale, Direction are essential features of a Map
What is Scale?
A scale is the ratio of the distance between two points on the map and their corresponding distance on the ground
Draw the Geographical symbol of river.
Give an example for small scale map.
The Maos drawn on the scale below 1cm: 15Km or 1: 15,00,000 eg. Atlas and wall Maps. These maps show broad physical and cultural features.
What is Economic Map.
Map reading means getting the correct visual image of the features shown on a Map
B. Identify the Latitudes and Longitudes for the given places from the given Karnataka map: (5 × 1 = 5)
13°N – 77°35’E
12°51’N – 74°50’E
14°48’N – 75°24’E
15°21’N – 75°10’E
17°54’N – 77°35’E
C. Draw a diagram of the following: (2 x 2 = 4)
Layers of Earth interior.
Temperature or Ilwat Zones.
Draw any two Geographical symbles.
D. Draw the outline map of India, mark and name the following: (3 × 2 = 6)
Outline Map of India.
Any two ports of west coast.
Cauvery and Narmada Rivers.
Blind Candidates only
Answer the following question in 25 to 30 sentences each: (5 × 3 = 15)
What is Bio diversity? Briefly explain the three levels of study of Bio diversity.
Bio-diversity means the diversity of variety of world’s living organism. In other words, the variety of species both flora and fauna present in an area is known as “bio-diversity”. According to the world resource institute: bio-diversity is a variety of the world’s organism’s including their genetic diversity and the assemblage they form.
The earth is endowed with a rich variety of living organisms. About 3,50,000 species of plants and 30, 00,000 species of animals have been identified so fat. India is one of the twelve countries of the world very rich in bio-diversity. India has about 46,000piant species and 81,000 animal species.
Types of Bio-diversity: Bio-diversity can be classified into there types. They are :
Genetic diversity, Species diversity and Eco-system diversity.
a. Genetic diversity: Genetic diversity refers to the variety of genes present in the members of species. This is basic level.
b. Species diversity: Species diversity refers to the variety of species in a specific place or among a specific group of organisms. This is the most familiar type and is found in the tropical zone that in cooler areas. India is rich in bio-diversity/. This is due to its tropical location, varied relief features and climate.
c. Eco-system diversity: Eco-system diversity refers to the variety of geographical situations on the earth such as lakes, forests, deserts etc, and the number of plants and animals found in each. Each type of ecosystem has a variety of species that differ from each other.
Conservation of bio-diversity: As loss of biodiversity is not desirable, there should be conservation of biodiversity. Effort should be made to maintain biodiversity.
The following steps may be taken for preserving biodiversity:
- The biological diversity should be identified and monitored.
- There should be the development of national strategies and programs for conserving biological diversity.
- National parks and sanctuaries must be developed for the protection and maintenance of plants and animals.
- Botanical gardens should be developed for the developed for the development and maintenance of new species of flower and other plants.
- Zoos should be developed for the protection and development of rare and new animal species.
What is Rainfall? Explain the types of Rainfall.
Rainfall is the natural process of condensation through which gaseous form of water is converted into liquid water droplets. It occurs due to cooling of saturated air mass, warm and moist air mass rising upward, warm air rising over cold air, sufficient humidity in the air and condensation. Rain fall is classified on the basis of condition and mechanism of upward rise of air and its cooling. Therefore, there are three types rainfall. They are explained as follows:
1. Convectional Rainfall: Earth surface is heated by the solar radiation. Due to this the warm moisture-laden air becomes light and ascends upwards vertically and quickly. The warm and moist air cools below dew point and condensation takes place rapidly, and dense clouds are formed. This led to the heavy rain fall with thunder and lighting. For convectional rainfall, there is need for local heating which leads to excessive evaporation.
There should not be any strong winds to lesser the heat such a condition of great heat, excessive evaporation and stagnant air is found in the equatorial regions through out the year As such, the convectional rainfall occurs in the daily afternoon in the equatorial region. In other topical countries this type of rainfall occurs only during summer, if sufficient moisture for local evaporation is available.
2. Orographic rainfall: When the moisture laden air from the sea is obstructed by a mountain, it is forced to move up the slope. As it moves up, it expands. Expansions lead to fall in temperature and the air cools. When the cooling takes places below the dew. point, condensation results and clouds are formed. When there is heavy condensation, the droplets of water in the clouds join to find bigger drops and there is rainfall.
Orographic rains are caused by the relief of the land. This type of rainfall is common in region where the mountain ranges are parallel and close to the sea and winds blow on shore. Behind the leeward side of the mountain, there is an area which receives very little rainfall and is called the rain shadow. Orographic rain is important in the monsoon land in summer, when the wind blows from the sea to the land. Thunderstorms also accompany this type of rainfall. It may be noted that the bulk of rainfall received by most parts of the world is of this type.
3. Cyclonic rainfall: The cyclonic rainfall is most common in the temperate region. The rainfall caused with a cyclone or depression is known as cyclonic rainfall. The winds take a circular movement in the regions where warm and cold air masses meet.
Explain the significance of Himalayas.
Significance Of Himalayas-
1. Strategic significance. A natural frontier of India with other countries(China, Pakistan, Afghanistan,etc)
2. Climatic significance. Prevent further northward movement of summer monsoon and also prevent cold northern winds from Siberia to enter into India.
3. Agricultural significance. Formation of Himalayas created a trough to its south which is later filled by. the sediments from the Himalayan rivers which is today known as northern plains- Indo-gangetic plains – Rich agricultural grounds.
4. Economic significance – Himalayan rivers have huge hydro-electric power potential. Moreover, Himalyan timber and medicinal plants have economic significance.
5. Tourist spot – large ecological diversity and hill stations