You can Download Chapter 5 Constitution of India Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Political Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 1st PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 5 Constitution of India
1st PUC Political Science Constitution of India One Mark Questions and Answers
When did the constitution of India came into force?
The constitution as a whole came into force with effect from January 26, 1950.
Who was elected as a temporary president of the constituent assembly?
Sachidanda Sinha elected as a temporary president of the constituent assembly.
Who was elected permanent chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the permanent chairman of the constituent assembly.
Who was the chairman of the drafting committee?
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committee.
Name any two members of the Indian constituent assembly.
Acharya Krupalani and K.M. Munshi are two members of the Indian constituent assembly.
How many members were there in the constituent assembly?
There were 389 members in the constituent assembly.
When did the drafting committee submitted the draft of Indian constitution?
The first draft submitted on February 1948 and the second one on October 1948.
When did the constituent assembly accept the draft of the Indian constitution?
The constituent assembly accepts the draft of the Indian constitution on 26th November 1949.
How many articles exist in the original constitution.
There are 395 articles that exists in the original constitution.
How many articles exist now in our constitution.
There are 465 articles that exist now in our constitution.
Which is the lengthiest constitution in the world?
The Constitution of India is the lengthiest constitution in the world.
Which is the shortest constitution in the world?
The American constitution is the shortest constitution in the world.
How much time has been taken by the constituent assembly to make the Indian constitution?
The constituent assembly took 2 years 11 months and 18 days with 11 session to make the Indian constitution.
Who described the preamble as the “political horoscope” of the constitution?
K. M. Munshi described the preamble as the “political horoscope” of the constitution.
Mention the words which were added to the preamble by the 42nd amendment.
The words “Socialism” and “Secular” were added to the preamble by the 42nd amendment.
Name the three lists of division of power.
- Centre list
- State list
- Concurrent list.
Name the part which contains the directive principles of state policy.
Part IV of the constitution contains the directive principles of state policy.
Name the part which contains the fundamental rights.
Part III of Indian constitution.
Which amendment removes the right to property from fundamental rights.
44th amendment removes the right to property from fundamental rights.
Which article refers to right to constitutional remedies?
Article 32 refers to right to constitutional remedies.
How many fundamental duties were there in the constitution?
There were 11 fundamental duties were there in the constitution.
Name the body that framed the Indian constitution.
The constitution of free India was framed by the Constituent Assembly.
When the constituent Assembly was constituted?
It was elected in the year 1946 under the cabinet mission plan.
Which body drafted the constitution of India?
A Drafting committee drafted the constitution of India.
What is meant by a preamble?
It is one which declares the aims and objectives of constitution.
What is secular state?
It is where there is freedom of religion state doesn’t interfere with the individuals religious matters.
What is ordinance?
It is temporary law issued by executive for the sake of administrative convenience or to meet the urgent situation.
What is Republic?
It means that India shall have an elected representative as the head of the state for a limited period of time.
Mention the number of articles and schedules in constitution of India.
It originally consisted of 395 articles and 9 schedules. At present there are 445 articles and 12 schedules.
Which new words were added to preamble by 42nd amendment to the constitution Assembly act 1947?
The word secular was added.
Name the lengthiest constitution in the world.
1st PUC Political Science Constitution of India Two Mark Questions and Answers
What is preamble?
It is the introduction of constitution which deals with the aims and objectives.
Name the two aspects of sovereignty?
- Internal sovereignty.
- External sovereignty.
What is the meaning of a socialist state?
Bringing about socio-economic changes to ensure a decent life to Indian citizens is called a socialist state.
State the meaning of secular state.
The government cannot extend special favour to any particular religion and treats equal is called secular state.
What do you mean by republic state?
The head of the state directly or indirectly elects through election for a fixed tenure is called republic state.
What do you mean by parliamentary form of government?
The executive is created by the legislature and responsible for it. It is known as the parliamentary form of government.
What do you mean by fundamental rights?
Fundamental rights are the facilities granted by the law to develop the individual personalities of the citizens.
What do you mean by directive principles of state policy?
Directive principles of state policy are provisions enshrined in the constitution to provide the ideals of social and economic democracy.
Give the meaning of single citizenship.
All the Indians irrespective of state, province are having only one citizenship is called single citizenship.
State the emergency power of the president.
- Under article 352 National emergency.
- Under article 356 state emergency.
- Under article 360 financial emergency.
List out the fundamental rights.
- Right to equality.
- Right to liberty.
- Right against exploitation.
- Right to freedom of religion.
- Cultural and educational rights.
- Right to constitutional remedies.
Name the different kinds of writs.
- Habeas corpus
- Oro – warrant.
What you mean by universal adult franchaise?
All the citizens who attained the particular age are having right to vote irrespective of caste, creed, religion is called universal adult franchaise.
Name the freedoms mentioned in article 19 of the constitution,
- Freedom of speech and expression.
- Freedom of rally.
- Freedom of association.
- Freedom of travelling in India.
- Freedom of residing in India.
- Freedom of carrying any job.
Write a short note on the drafting committee of the constitution of India?
The constituent assembly set up a drafting committee of 7 members with Dr. Ambedkar as its chairman. The constituent assembly spent more than 2 years in thoroughly discussing and enacting the constitution.
What are territorial constituencies?
Areas delimited for the purpose of election are called constituencies. Each state or union territory is divided into elected areas or territorial constituencies as parliamentary constituencies.
Write the reservation of seats for scheduled castes and tribes?
A Specified number of seats are reserved for the scheduled castes and tribes in Loksabha. From a reserved constituency, persons belonging to these castes and tribes can contest an election. This provision was made to provide due to representation to the weaker sections of the society.
What is consolidated fund of India?
The expenditure considered being a charge on the consolidated fund of India is not put to the vote of parliament. It includes salaries of president.
Write the meaning of federation.
The word federation is derived from the Latin word ‘foedus’, which means treaty or agreement. The federal form of government comes into existence through treaty or agreement federation is born by creating new state.
1st PUC Political Science Constitution of India Five Mark Questions and Answers
Give an introductory note on Indian constitution.
The framers of constitution of India drew the ideals, principles and even the organizational details from many sources. They have harrowed extensively from several well-known constitutions of the world.
It has incorporated the parliamentary system of England. The USA has taken mainly from the government of India Act 1935.
The objectives, resolution adopted by the constituent assembly in its first session became the basis of the preamble to constitution.
Write a short note on constituent assembly.
It was set up under the 1946, cabinet mission plan. The assembly consisted of representatives of all important communities. The constituent assembly met on 11th December 1946. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was unanimously elected as its president.
The constituent assembly initially consisted of 389 members 292 from the British India province and 93 from the states. The elections were held in July 1946.
On 29th August 1947, the constituent assembly appointed a drafting committee, under the leadership of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Write about the drafting committee.
The drafting committee of the Indian constitution has been formed on 29th August 1947 and B.R. Ambedkar was elected as a chairman. The main responsibility that entrusted to the drafting committee to draft the new constitution. It consists of 7 members called B.R. Ambedkar, chairman, B.L. Mitter, N: Gopalaswamy Ayvangar, Alladi KrishswamyAyyar, Dr. K.M Munshi, Saiyid Mohd Saadullah, D.R Khaitan.
The drafting committee prepared the first draft which was published in February 1948. It prepared a second draft which was published in October 1948 and completed its work in 141 days. On 29th November 1949, the constituent assembly accepts and enacted the Indian constitution.
Write the text of the preamble of the Indian constitution.
The preamble of the constitution of India explains the aims and ideology and reads as:
WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, DEMOCRATIC, SOCIALIST, SECULAR and REPUBLIC Nation and securing to all its citizens.
JUSTICE – social, economic and political.
LIBERTY – of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship.
EQUALITY – of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all.
FRATERNITY – assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and the integrity of the Nation.
The idea of the preamble has been borrowed from constitution of U.S.A.
Question 5. Explain the principles of the preamble.
The preamble of the constitution of India explains the aims and ideology and reads as:
WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, DEMOCRATIC, SOCIALIST, SECULAR and REPUBLIC Nation and securing to all its citizens.
- JUSTICE – social, economic and political.
- LIBERTY – of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship.
- EQUALITY – of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all.
- FRATERNITY – assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and the integrity of the Nation.
- The idea of the preamble has been borrowed from constitution of U.S.A.
List out the fundamental duties of Indian citizens.
The 42nd amendment has incorporated a number of fundamental duties.
- Abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national flag and, national anthem.
- Uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
- Defend the country and render national service.
- Promote common brotherhood and harmony.
- Value and preserve our composite culture.
- Protect the natural environment.
- Develop the scientific temper.
- Strive towards excellence in all sphere.
Explain the different kinds of writs.
1. Habeas corpus: It is an order issued by the court to produce the person who has wrongly detained within 24 hours.
2. Mandamus: It is a command issued by the court to ask the government official for performing his duties.
3. Prohibition: It is issued by a higher court to lower court to prevent their exceeding jurisdiction.
4. Certiorari: It is issued by a higher court to lower court to transfer a case pending with the later in a case.
5. Quo – warranto: It is issued by a court to enquire into the legality of claim of a person to public office.
Write a short note on RTE.
RTE stands right to education which means all the children in India are entitled to get compulsory and free education. The 86th amendment act of 2002 provides an opportunity to get free and compulsory education to all the children from the age 6 to 14 years.
Parliament passed the compulsory education act on 2009 and in compliance of the central government, the Karnataka government framed rules and enforced from 28th April 2012. Main provisions of RTE
- All the children from the age of 6 to 14 should get free and compulsory education.
- The responsibility of the parents are to send their children to the school.
- The provisions are made to ensure the education facilities especially to the weaker section and child belonging to a disadvantaged group.
- The central and state government have jointly responsible to carry over this scheme.
- To provide the education to all the children, the government should establish the schools accesses to the children.
- The government should bear the expenses of education and should pay the same to education institutions.
- The concerned BEO and DDPI should have responsibility to look after this.
Why is the Indian Constitution called quasi-federal?
The constitution of India has been described as quasi-federal because it has both federal and unitary features. Though the constitution of India establishes a federal form of government. The term federation has not been used anywhere in the constitution. The framers of constitution incorporated a number of unitary elements such as strong centre, single citizenship, appointment of governess by the centre, etc. According to K.C. Where the Indian constitution establishes a system of government which is almost quasi-federal.
What is Right to freedom?
Our constitution guarantees 6 valuable freedoms to the citizens of India.
- The freedom of speech and expression.
- To assemble peacefully without arms.
- To form associations or unions.
- To move freely across the length and breadth of the country.
- To reside or settle down in any part of India.
- To carry on any lawful trade or occupation.
1st PUC Political Science Constitution of India Ten Mark Questions and Answers
Explain the salient features of the Indian constitution.
Salient Features of the Indian Constitution are:
The constitution of India came into force on 26th January, 1950. The preamble enumerates the source, the nature and high aims and ideals of the constitution. The preamble cannot be enforced in a court of law it is a grand declaration.
The following are the salient features of the constitution of India:
1.Detailed and Written Constitution:
The constitution of India is a comprehensive document. It is detailed and lengthy constitution in the world. It consists of 445 Articles, 22 parts, 12 schedules, and 100 Amendments. The bulk of the constitution is due to many reasons. Such as :
- It contains the broad principles and details of administration.
- The constitution provides for the administrative machinery at the centre and also in the States.
- Incorporation of Fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy.
- Special provision for safeguarding the interest of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes,
- UPSC and SPSC and Election Commission, Independent Judiciary,
- Official languages and regional languages etc. have been dealt with in the constitution.
2. Sovereign, Democratic, Republic:
The constitution of India is Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic.
- India is a sovereign state and it is subject to no other authority either in her internal affairs or external relations. Its power is absolute internally and externally within its sphere.
- 42 Amendment Act of 1976 declares India to be a socialist state.
- Preamble to the constitution declares that India is a sovereign democratic Republic. The President of India is elected and his term of office is five years.
The constitution of India has established a single and uniform citizenship for the whole of the country. Single citizenship implies that all Indian citizens owe allegiance to the Indian Union. Any citizen, irrespective of his birth or residence, is entitled to enjoy civil and political rights throughout India In all states and Union Territories.
Part III of the Indian constitution embodies six fundamental Rights, which are guaranteed to the people of India. These rights are sacred and sacrosanct and cannot be violated. The constitution makes the Supreme Court and the High Courts, the guardian of rights and liberties of the people. However they are not absolute. The constitution imposes necessary limitations and the rights can be suspended under conditions of grave emergency.
- Right to Equality.
- Right to Freedom.
- Right against Exploitation.
- Right to Religion.
- Cultural and Educational Rights.
- Right to constitutional Remedies.
5. Fundamental Duties:
The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 has incorporated ten duties for even Indian citizen.
- To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals, institutions, the flag, and the National Anthem.
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspire our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty; unity and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and render national services when called upon to do so.
- To promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the script of inquiry and reform.
- To safeguard public property and to adjure violence,
- To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collection activity.
6.Secular and Socialist State:
At the time of drafting the constitution, the framers did not have the vision to mention these words in the preamble of the constitution. But these words were added in the preamble by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976. Accordingly, India is a secular and non-religious in character. In fact, it does not identify itself with any religion. India is neither religious, nor irreligious, nor anti-religious but it is detached from the religious dogmas and activities. The aim of the constitution is too make India a socialist state on the basis of welfare programs.
7. Backward Classes and Minorities:
The constitution protects the interest of the backward class and the Minorities.
8. Official language:
Hindi. is laid as the official language of India. A common official language symbolized the unity of the country.
9. Directive Principles of State Policy:
It is another important feature of the Indian constitution. It contains various aims and aspirations to fulfilled by the state. They are instruments of instructions to the government to follow specific polices.
10.Parliamentary System of Government:
The Indian constitution proposed a parliamentary system of government for India.
11. Federation with strong centre:
The constitution has laid down a federal form of government; with a Union of the states. The Union is more powerful than the states.
12. Independent Judiciary:
The judiciary under the constitution is made independent of the legislature and the executive. It protects the fundamental rights and safeguards the provisions of the constitution. In fact, it is the guardian of the constitution and protector of Fundamental Rights.
13. Judicial review:
The Supreme Court of India has the power of judicial review. It can declare laws enacted by the parliament and state legislatures and orders passed by the executive as invalid if found contrary to the provisions of the constitution.
14. Election Commission:
The constitution provides for the establishment of Election Commission for the whole country. It conducts free and fair elections of the president, vice-president, members of parliament and state legislatures from time to time. It consists of one chief Election commissioner and two other Election commissioners who are appointed by the president of India for the period of 6 years.
15. Rigidity and flexibility:
There is a unique procedure of constitutional amendment. Article 368 of the constitution deals with the amendment procedure:
(a) By simple majority:
The creation of new states, creation or abolition of the legislative council, etc. These can be amended by a simple majority in both the houses of the union parliament.
(b) By half – simple and half-rigid method:
The provisions such as citizenship, Fundamental Rights, Directive principles, etc., shall be amended by 2/3 majority of members present and voting in both houses of the parliament.
(c) By Rigid Method:
The method of amending the constitution involves rigid procedure. Matters relating to the election and powers of the president and powers of the Union and State government. Union judiciary, establishment of High Court, division of legislative powers, representation of states in Union Parliament, etc., can be amended by 2/3 majority members of both houses of the Union parliament and has to be ratified by not less than half of the state legislature.
Every person who is a citizen of India and who are above 18 years of age irrespective, gender is entitled to be registered as a voter.
17. Emergency provisions: the constitution of India envisages three types of emergencies. which the president may proclaim in different critical situations. Such as:
(a) National Emergency:
Article 352 provides national emergency. If the president is satisfied that the security of India or any part thereof is threatened by war, or external aggression or internal disturbance, he may issue a proclamation of emergency. But it must be laid before each house of parliament for approval.
(b) Failure of constitutional machinery in the state:
The president on the receipt of report from the Governor of a state if satisfied, that a situation has arisen in which the government of a state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution, he can proclaim state emergency. It is to be approved by each House of parliament within two months. But normally it remains for six months and can be continued for three years.
(c) Financial Emergency:
The president of India is satisfied that the financial stability of India is any part thereof is threatened he may proclaim financial emergency . It expires at the end of two months unless it is approved by the parliament.
18. Local self-Governments:
A constitutional statue was given to local self-governments in accordance with the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments which were made in the year 1992 and came into force in 1993.
Explain the Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens.
The III Part of the constitution of India has guaranteed seven fundamental rights. But the 44th Amendment Act of 1978 deleted 6th fundamental right; right to property. Now it remains only a legal right. All the fundamental rights come under articles from 12 to 35. These rights are explained as under
1. Right to Equality:
(14 to 18) Article 14 confers on all the citizens equality before the law and equal protection of the law.
Article 15 prohibits any discrimination by the state towards its citizens on grounds of race, religion, caste, gender, and place of birth. The same article throws open public places, like shops, wells, restaurants, etc. to all citizens.
Article 16 provides for equality in matters of public employment. No one shall be discriminated against on the grounds of race, religion, caste, gender, place of birth and residence. But the state may discriminate in favor of Backward classes of citizens by reserving jobs in the Government.
Article 17 prohibits the practice of untouchability in any form. Those who practice it will be severely punished.
Article 18 prohibits the state from conferring titles like Rao Bahadur, His Highness, etc, on its citizens. However, it may award military or civil distinction like Paramavir Chakra,
Bharat Ratna, Padma Bhushan, Padmashree.
2. Right to Freedom (19 to 22) Article 19 gives 6 freedoms to the citizens of India. Such as:
- Freedom of speech and expression.
- Assemble peacefully without arms.
- Form associations.
- Move freely within the country.
- To reside and settle down in any part of the country.
- To practice any profession or trade.
Article 20 – lays down the Right to personal Life and Liberty.
No person shall be arrested when the law is not in operation.
No person shall be punished more than once for the same offence.
No person shall be forced to give evidence against himself.
Article 21 – No person shall be deprived of his life and liberty except according to the procedure established by law. The punishment shall be enforced only when he is punished.
Article 22 – Preventive Detention provides safeguards to persons under arrest. They are:
22 (1) the person arrested shall be informed on the grounds of his arrest as soon as possible.
22 (2) the person arrested shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within 24 hours of his arrest. He shall not be denied the right to consult and be defended by a lawyer.
22 (3) preventive detention shall not be applicable to the person who has been arrested according to law.
22 (4) the person who has been arrested shall not be detained in custody for more than 3 months.
22 (5) the person who has been arrested and detained in custody shall be informed of the ground of his arrest.
22 (6) to inform the ground of arrest against the public interest shall be informed.
22(7) with the approval of the parliament the detention period shall Be extended, more than 3 months.
3. Right against Exploitation: (23 to 24)
Article 23 prohibits traffic in human beings and forced labour. Selling of women into prostitution is prohibited.
Article 24 prohibits the employment of children below 14 years of age in factories and mines which is of hazardous nature.
4. Right to Religion: (25 to 28)
Article 25 – Every citizen has the right to profess, propagate and practice any religion as he pleases subject to public peace and morality.
Article 26 – Every religious group shall establish institutions for charitable and religious purposes and manage its internal affairs and acquire the property.
Article 27 – State shall not collected taxes for the maintenance of any particular religion or religious institution.
Article 28 – no religions instructions shall be given in the government or aided educational institutions.
5. Cultural and Educational Rights: (29 to 30)
Article 29- Every citizen has the right to protect the culture and script of his choice.
Article 30 gives the right to any cultural group or minority community to run an educational institution and the government shall not make any discrimination while making grants.
6. Right to constitutional Remedies: (32)
It protects the citizens against encroachment of his rights. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar said that this right is “the heart and soul of the constitution”. Every citizen has the right to move to the court if his rights are encroached by anybody. Article 32 (1) The Supreme Court is empowered to issue writs of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-Warranto and Certiorari. Article 226-High Court can also issue writs for the enforcement of fundamental rights. This right is regarded as die custodian of all the rights.
Write a note on constituent assembly.
The first of Constituent Assembly was held on 9th December, 1946. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was made as the President of the Constituent Assembly. The historic objectives resolution was moved in the Government Assembly by Nehru on 13th December 1946 The beautifully worded draft of the objectives resolution cast the horoscope of the sovereign Democratic Republic.
The Constituent Assembly appointed a number of committees to deal with the framing of the constitution. The committees worked hard and produced valuable reports. These reports were considered by the Constituent Assembly and later considered by the drafting committee. On 29th August 1947, the Constituent Assembly appointed a Drafting Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to scrutinize the draft of the constitution, prepared by constitutional advisor B. N. Rau.
The constitution of India was drafted by the Drafting Committee and was submitted to the president of the Constituent Assembly on 21st February 1948. A large number of comments, criticism, and suggestions for the amendment of the draft were received. The Drafting Committee decided to issue a report of the draft constitution and was submitted to the President of the Assembly on 26th October. 1948.
The second reading of the constitution was completed on 16th Nov 1949 and on the next day the Constituent Assembly took up the third reading of the constitution. It was adopted on 26th Nov 1949. The Constituent Assembly accomplished the tremendous task of framing the constitution in 2 years 11 months and 18 days. The constitution was finally signed by members of the Constituent Assembly. The same constitution came into force on 26th Jan 1950.
Besides framing the constitution, the Constituent Assembly performed several other important functions like passing certain statues, adopting the national flag, declaring the national anthem, ratifying the decision in regard to the membership of the commonwealth and election of the first president of the Republic.
The draft of the constitution contained 18 parts 8 schedules and 445 articles are considered as the most bulky and lengthiest in the world.
Explain the Directive principles of state policy.
Our constitution lays down some directives in the nature of moral guides to the state. These are non – enforceable. The idea of incorporating directives or ideals or goals in the constitution was borrowed from the Irish constitution. The directive principles are contained in part IV of the constitution, in Article 36 to 51.
Full list of the Directive Principles:
Article 39: The state shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing:
- That the citizens, men, and women equally, have the right to an adequate means to livelihood.
- That the ownership and control of the material resources to be useful for the common good.
- That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common determinant.
- That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
- That the health and strength of the workers, men, and women, and the tender age of children are not used and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuitable to their age or strength.
- That children are given opportunities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.
Classification of Directives:
The directive principles are embodied in Articles from 36 to 51. They cover a wide range of state activities concerning social, economic, legal, educational and International principles. They are classified into four categories, such as welfare, Gandhian, liberal and general principles.
These principle aims at the attainment of the welfare state.
Article 38 provides that the state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of national life.
Article 39 provides that the state shall direct its policy towards securing that.
- The citizens, men, and women equally have the right to an adequate means of livelihood.
- The ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as to subserve the common good.
- The operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment.
- There is equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
- The health and strength of workers, men, women, and children are not abused and that citizens are not forced to enter vocations unsuitable to their age.
- Childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and moral and mental abandonment.
Article 41 ensures that the right to work education and public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement and other cases of undeserved want.
Article 42 provides that provisions shall be made by the state for securing just and human conditions of work and maternity relief.
Article 43 exhorts the state to secure to all workers – industrial, agricultural work, a living wage, conditions of work, decent standard of life, enjoyment of leisure, social and cultural opportunities.
Article 46 provides that the state shall take special care of the economic and educational interest of the weaker sections particularly of SC’s and ST’s and protect them from social injustice and exploitation.
Article 47 states that are made duty-bound to raise the level of nutrition, the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health.
The Gandhian philosophy finds its expression in some of the articles mentioned in the 4th part of the constitution. Such as :
- To organize village Panchayats and endow them with such powers as may enable them to function as units of self-government.
- To promote the educational and economic interests of SC’s ST’s and weaker sections of the people.
- To promote cottage industries on an individual and co-operative basis.
- To take steps for preventing and improving the breeds of milk and drought cattle, including cows and prohibition of slaughter of cows.
- Prohibition of consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs which are injuries to health (except for medical purpose).
These principles are embedded in the following provisions.
- To secure uniform civil code for the citizens throughout the territory of India.
- To provide free and compulsory education for the children up to the age of 14 years of age.
- To organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modem and scientific lines.
- To take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public service of the state.
- Article 49 provides that it is the obligation of the state to protect every historical monu¬ment or place for national interest.
- The state shall promote international peace and security.
- To maintain just and honorable relations between nations.
- To foster respect for international law and treaty obligations.
- To encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitrations.
- The directives have been subjected to serve criticisms.
- These principles are considered as mere platitudes without any practical use for the people.
- There is no immediate social and economic program for the people.
- These principles do not attract the people as they are silent and not inspiring.
- These principles are neither properly classified nor logically arranged.
- There is no legal force behind them.
- These principles are not legally enforceable.