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Karnataka 2nd PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers
What do you think is significance of reproductive health in a society?
Reproductive health means total well being in all aspects of reproduction i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural, social.
- Awareness is provided to both males and females to lead healthy and satisfying reproductive life.
- To make individuals aware of fertility regulating methods.
- Protect against STD’s.
- Planning children and family planning.
- Proper hygiene of genitalia and treat for reproductive diseases.
Suggest aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in present scenario.
- Sex education
- Family welfare information
- Reproductive health clinics.
- Prompting elders to give support and suggestions to children.
Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Yes, it is necessary in schools because:
- It will provide correct information about sex and reproductive organs.
- Changes during adolescence are fully explained.
- Changes in behaviour are predicted.
- Horns of early life and marriage are explained.
- Cleanliness of genitalia are explained and misconception and myths are removed if any.
- Information is provided about STD’s
- Family planning and hygienic sexual practices are explained.
Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in past 50 years? If yes, mention such areas of improvement.
Yes, our country has improved in past 50 years. The areas of such improvement are:
- Reduced MMR and IMR (Maternal Mortality Rate and Infant Mortality Rate)
- Reduced birth rate.
- Decline in STD’s in India.
- Couple protection by family planning has increased.
What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
- Improved medical facilities
- Decline in death rate, IMR, MMR
- Slower decline in birth rate.
- Longer life span.
- Lack of 100% family planning and education among village.
Is the use of contraceptives justified ? Give reasons.
- It slows down growth of population
- Helps for proper spacing of children.
- Helps to prevent STDs and prevent its spreading.
- Helps couples to lead a healthy reproductive life.
Removal of gonads cannot be considered as contraceptive options ? Why ?
Contraception is meant for preventing conceptions. But removal of gonads can lead to non-secretion of sex hormones. Virilism can appear in ladies and gents may have soft contour.
Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary ? Comment.
Amniocentesis is a method for sex determination of the foetus. Due to ethical and spiritual reasons, in India female foetus is not accepted and foetus is destroyed by some families. So, sex – ratio has declined in India. In order to maintain sex – ratio and to prevent social problems in future generation, this test has been banned in India.
Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples.
They are some Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) to assist infertile couples.
Some ARTs are:
- Test tube baby / IVF-ET (Invitro fertilization and Embryo transfer) : Ova and sperms are collected and fused (induced) to form zygote in laboratory conditions and transferred into fallopian tube (ZIFT – Zygote intra fallopian transfer) or Uterus (IUT – Intra uterine transfer). Here male / female / both may be donor.
- GIFT – (Gamete intra fallopian transfer). Gamete is from donor.
- ICSI – (Intra Cytoplasmic sperm injection). Sperm is directly injected into the ovum.
- AI (Artificial Insemination). Semen from husband ( AIH) or donor (AID) is injected directly into vagina or uterus (IUI – Intra uterine insemination)
What are the measures one has to take to prevent from STD’s ?
- Avoid sex with unknown / multiple partners.
- Always use condoms.
- Avoid early or late marriages.
- Early detection and complete cure in case of doubt.
State True / False with explanation.
(a) Abortion could happen spontaneously too.
- Due to lack of hormonal support.
- Due to congenital malformation of uterus.
(b) Infertility is defined as inability to produce viable offsprings and is always due to abnormality / defect in female partners.
False. Infertility may be due to male or female partners.
c) Complete location could help as a natural method of contraception.
True. Effective for a period of 6 months due to absence of menstruation.
(d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people.
True. It can reduce STD’s and help practice hygienic sexual practices.
Correct the following statements:
(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
(b) All STD’s are completely curable.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptive among rural women.
(d) In E.T techniques, embryos are always transferred into uterus.
(a) Gamete formation → Gamete fusion.
(b) Completely curable → not curable
(c) Rural women → the woman (urban women piostly)
(d) Embryos → more than eight celled (zygote or early embryos).
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health Additional Questions and Answers
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health One Mark Questions
What do you understand by the term “Reproductive health”?
The term reproductive health refers to healthy reproductive organs and then normal functioning.
What is reproductive health according to the World Health Organisation ?
According to the World Health Organisation reproductive health means a total well being in physical, emotional, behavioural and social aspects of reproduction.
Expand MMR and IMR.
- MMR – Maternal Mortality Rate.
- IMR – Infant Mortality Rate.
Write one reason for the ban on amniocentesis.
Amniocentesis is used to find out the sex of the foetus and it leads to female foeticide
i. e., killing of female foetus.
Mention any 2 probable reasons for rapid rise of population in our country from about 350 millions at the time of independence to about 1 billion by the year 2000.
The reasons are
- Decline in death rate
- Decline in maternal mortality rate
- Decline in IMR.
Which of the following represents an increase or decrease in population
- Decrease in population : Mortality and emigration.
- Increase hi population: Immigration and Natality.
Give 2 important measures taken by the government to tackle the problem of population explosion.
- Statutory rising of marriageable age of the female to 18 years and that of the male 21 years.
- Incentives given to the couples with micro family.
Expand MTP and STD.
- MTP – Medical termination of pregnancy.
- STD – Sexually transmitted disease.
Name 2 viral STDs that are incurable.
Genital herpes, AIDS.
What are Assisted reproduction technologies. [ART]? [Delhi 2008]
ART are the special techniques to help the infertile couples to produce children.
What are the different ways in which progesterone or progesterone – estrogen combination can be taken for contraception?
- Oral pills
Write the other 2 names given for STDs.
Venereal diseases (VDs) and Reproductive tract infections (RTI).
Name 2 STDs that can be transmitted by sharing injection needles or surgical instruments.
Hepatitis – B, AIDS.
What is In vitro fertilization ?
It involves fertilization of ovum outside the body followed by the transfer of embryo inside the uterus.
- IVF – In Vitro Fertilization
- ZIFT – Zygote intra fallopian transfer
- IUT – Intra Uterine Transfer
- GIFT – Gamete intra fallopian transfer.
- ICSI – Intra cytoplasmic Sperm Injection.
- AI – Artificial insemination.
- IUI – Intra uterine Insemination
- ART – Assisted Reproductive Technologies.
After a successful invitro fertilization, the fertile egg begins to divide. Where is this egg transferred before it reaches the 8 cells stage and What is this technique named ?
It will be (egg) transferred into the fallopian tube; the technique is called zygote intra fallopian transfer (ZIFT).
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health Two Marks Questions
Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary ? Comment. [CBSE – 2006]
Since the amniocentesis is misused for female foeticide, the ban is necessary. But by banning this, its advantage of finding out any chromosomal disorders and / or metabolic disorders of the foetus is lost. So, it should be legalized with some strict conditions to avoid its misuse.
Why is hormone releasing IUD considered a good contraceptive to space children ? [CBSE – 2008]
Hormone releasing IUDs
- Make the uterus unsuitable for implantation.
- Make the cervix hostile to sperms.
- Increase the phagocytosis of sperm within the uterus.
How does Cu T act as an effective contraceptive for human females.
Cu T is an intra – uterine device (IUD) and functions as follows:
The Cu ions released suppressed sperm motility and the fertilizing capacity of sperms.
IUDs increase phago cytosis of sperms with in the uterus.
How do pills act as contraceptives in human females ?
Name the hormonal composition of the oral contraceptive used by human females. Explain how does it act as a contraceptive.
- Pills contain progesterone or
- progesterone-estrogen combination.
- They inhibit ovulation
- They alter the quality of cervical mucus and retard the entry of sperms into cervix.
Explain any 2 methods of Assisted reproductive Technology (ART) that has helped couples to bear children.
[CBSE – 2008]
- GIFT is method of transferring the ovum, collected from a donor, into the uterus of a female who cannot produce ova.
- ICSI is the process in which sperms are directly injected into the ovum under laboratory condition is and the embryo is transferred into the uterus / fallopian tube.
- In the so called test tube baby programme, the ova of the female and sperms of the male are made to fuse under laboratory conditions and the embryo is transferred into the uterus / fallopian tube of the female
Family planning techniques are not adopted by all in our country. Why?
- Religious belief
- People are not fully aware of the method.
- Emotional and social factors
- Fear of some of the ill effects.
How.do surgical procedures prevent conception in humans ? Mention the way it is achieved in human females.
Surgical procedures block the transport of gametes and achieve contraception.
The sterilization procedure in human males is called vasectomy. In this method a small part of vas deferens is removed and then tied up through a small incision on the scrotum. Hence the continuity of the path of sperm is lost.
2nd PUC Biology Reproductive Health Three/Five Marks Questions
Give any six reproduction related issues.
- Child birth / Parturition
- Menstrual problem
- conceptive methods.
How lUDs prevent pregnancy?
- IUDs increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.
- The Cu ions released by IUDs suppress the term motility and their fertilizing capacity.
- The hormone releasing IUDs make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and cervix hostile to the sperms.
Represent diagrammatically the sterilization method, vasectomy in male reproductive system and tubectomy in female reproductive system.
(a) What does gamete intra fallopian transfer (GIFT) represent ?
(b) How do Cu-T and Cu 7 acts as contraceptive devices ?
(a) GIFT – It is the introduction of 2 unfertilized oocytes and 2-5 lac motile sperm into fallopian tube of a woman desires to have a child through laparoscope. The egg may be of her’s or of a donor. The sperm may be her husband’s or of a donor. Fertilization occurs inside the fallopian tube and the development of foetus takes place through natural process.
(b) Cu-T, Cu 7 are intra uterine, contraceptive devices having ionized copper. The copper defuses into uterus. It brings about the release of toxic cytokinins. They inhibit the sperm motility and therefore fertilization of ovum. Another categories of IUDs are hormonal in nature. (Eg: LNG – 20).