You can Download Chapter 5 Human Settlements Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Human Settlements
2nd PUC Geography Human Settlements One Mark Questions with Answers
What is Settlement?
Settlement means the places inhabited by people permanently in village, a town or a city is called Settlement.
What is rural settlement?
All settlement not Qualifying for an URBAN Status are called rural settlement. They are engaged mainly in Primary activities.
What are wet point settlement?
Normally rural settlements are located near water points like rivers, lakes and springs where water can obtain easily. These settlement are aslo known as ‘Wet point settlements’.
What are Hamlets?
These are smaller than villages and lacking of public utilities.
Which is the first million city of the world?
London by around 1810.
What is a city?
A densely populated area of considerable size is a city which is larger than a town. An urban center with 1 lakh and more Population is called a city.
Define the meaning of Megalopolies?
Megalopolies is a Greek word which means “Great city ” consisting of several sites merging with the suburbs of one or more cities.
What is Mega city?
Mega city is a metropolitan area with total Population of more than 10 million people.
Which is the largest mega city in the world?
Newyork is the largest mega city in the world.
Define the term ‘conurbation’?
The term Conurbation applies to a large area of urban development that resulted from the merging of several towns of cities.
What is Random Pattern.
It is a type of settlement in this neither very closer to each other nor highly dispersed.
What is Linear Pattern.
In such settlements, houses are located along a road, railway line, river, and canal.
What is Double Village.
These settlements extend on both sides of a river where there is a bridge.
How many million cities are there in the world.
Approximately 180 cities.
What is Break points.
The point of changing transport modes like sea route to land route can be called as “Break points”.
What is Star shaped pattern.
Where several roads meets, Star shaped settlements develop as the houses are built along the roads.
What is town.
A town is one in a rural community, having much smaller in size of population than a city.
What is Economic problems.
Increasing population in the urban centers causes unemployment. It is called economic problems.
Which are the areas that are suitable for the Tourist centres.
The place where it has specific natural scenery, a good landscape a beach or greenery may become the tourist centres.
What is environmental problems?
Urbanization causes deterioration of environment quality by pollutions and disposal of waste.
2nd PUC Geography Human Settlements Two Marks Questions with Answers
Define rural and urban settlements?
Rural settlements: are the settlements whose occupants are engaged mainly on Primary activity like Agriculture & animal Husbandary etc.
Urban Settlements : The word urban means town or a city it is larger then the villages. These are dominated by Secondary and Tertiary occupations.
Mention the important pattern of rural settlements?
There are 5 important pattern of rural settlements.
- Uniform Pattern
- Clustered Patttem
- RANDOM Pattern
- Dispersed Pattern
- Hamlets Pattern.
Define city & million city?
City : The urban center with 1 lakh and more population is called a city.
Million city : Total Population of 1 million and above the urban area is known as million city.
Give two examples of Educational towns?
Mention any two cultural & religious towns?
List out the trading & commercial towns of the world?
- Pittsburg and Jamshedpur.
Give two examples of administration towns.
- New Delhi
Distinguish between Uniform Pattern and Clustered Pattern of Settlements.
The distribution of houses which indicate the equal distribution of resources can be called as ‘Uniform Pattern”.
A cluster pattern refers to the settlements which are very closer to each other. These are located near the rivers, fertile lands, mining points etc.
Distinguish between Rectangular Pattern and Circular Pattern of rural settlements.
The roads are’rectangular and cut each other at right angles along which houses are built is known as rectangular pattern.
Circular village develop around Lakes, tanks. The Central part remains open and is used for keeping the animals to protect them from wild animals.
Define “Pull and Push factors” of Urbanization.
The facilities of the cities attract people from the rural areas which are called “‘pull factors”. In contract rural areas have many problems which force people to migrate outwards, are called push factors.
What is occupational structure of urban settlements?
The Economic activities is an important criteria for designing occupational structure of urban settlements interms of population size & their occupation. The secondary & tertian occupations are predominant in the urban areas.
Write the important problems of slums.
- Housing problems
- Sanitation problems &
- Scarcity of water facilities.
Write about the ‘dry point settlements’.
The houses are built on stilts to protect from floods, as well as from the wild animals, those are called ‘dry point settlements’.
2nd PUC Geography Human Settlements Five Marks Questions with Answers
Explain the patterns of rural settlement.
The term ‘settlement pattern’ refers to the spatial arrangement of houses.
The rural settlement pattern may be mainly classified into following types.
- Uniform pattern : A Unifonn pattern of settlement is the distribution of houses which indicate the equal distribution of resources.
- Clustered pattern : A Cluster pattern refers to the settlements which are very closer to each other. These patterns are located near the rivers, fertile lands, mining points etc.
- Random pattern : In this type of settlements neither they are clustering not highly dispersed.
- Dispersed settlements : In this, the settlements, the houses are located away from each other individually for Ex: farm houses. This kind of settlement is also called scattered settlements.
- Hamlets : Thses are smaller than villages lacking of Public utilities.
Explain the shapes-of rural settlements.
The rural settlements are of different shapes such as:-
- LINEAR PATTERN – In such settlements, houses are located along a road railway line, river and canal, edge of a valley.
- RECTANGULAR PATTERN – Such patterns of rural settlements are found in plain areas or wide inter mountain valleys. The roads are rectangular and cut each other at right angles along which house are built.
- CIRCULAR PATTERN – Circular villages developed around lakes, tanks and sometimes the villages is planned in such a way that the Central part remains open to protect the domestic animal from wild life.
- STAR SHAPED PATTERN – Where the several roads meets, star shaped settlements develop as the houses built along the roads.
- T, X, Y AND T SHAPED SETTLEMENTS – These settlements develop at tri¬junctions of the roads.
- DOUBLE VILLAGE – These settlements extend on both sides of a river where there is a bridge.
- TRIANGULAR PATTERN – This shape of settlements set by the confluence of two rivers and also the junction point of two railway lines are often triangular.
Discuss the problems of rural settlements.
Some of the most important common problems of rural settlements are –
- Supply of water is most inadequate. People in the rural areas particularly in mountain and desert region walks for long distances to Fetch drinking water.
- The Water borne disease such as cholera, jaundice etc, are the common problems.
- Many rural areas are facing the problems of natural diasters which occur frequently such as floods and droughts.
- Agriculture areas are severely affected due to lacking of irrigation.
- Being dominated by agriculture the effects of droughts are severe and have effects which strech for many years.
- The ruraljiouses are lacking toilet and disposal facilities of solid waster/garbages which cause health related problems.
- The houses are made up of mud, wood and thatch which are damaged by heavy rains & floods. They require proper maintainance every year.
- Most of the houses do not have proper ventilation and the design of the houses also includes animal shed with fodder storage.
- The rural settlements are lacking roads and other modem communications.
Describe the types of Urban settlements.
The types of Urban settlements are designated as towns, cities, million cities etc. It is based on their size of population.
- Town – A town is one in a rural community, having much smaller in size of a population than a city.
- City – A densely populated area of considerable size is a city which is larger than a town. An urban center with 1 lakh and more population is called a city.
- Conurbation – The term conurbation applies to a large area of urban development that resulted from the merging of several towns of cities eg: Greater London. Greater Mumbai etc.
- Megalopolis – Megalopolis are the extended urban or metropoliton area, typically consisting of several sites merging with the suburbs of one or more cities.
- Million City – Total population of 1 million and above, the urban area is known as million cities.
The total number of million cities was 160 in 1975, 438 in 2005 & 468 in 2013.
- Mega city – A megacity is a general term for cities together with their suburbs with population of more than 10 million people or megacity is defined as a metropolitan area with total population in excess of 10 million people.
Newyork was the first to attain the status of a megacity by 1950 with population of 12.5 million.
Explain the Urban settlements based on occupation and functions.
The Urban settlements based on occupation and functions are as follows.
1. Occupational structure – The Economic activities such as secondary and tertiary- occupations are predominant in Urban area.
2. Functions – All urban settlements have some common functions. The following are the important urban functions.
- Administration towns – Some urban centers are engaged in administrative function which may be termed as the good administrative centres. Eg. NewDelhi, Canberra, Beijing Addis Abada, Washington D C and London,
- Trading and Commercial towns – Now a days many towns are turned into trading and commercial functions such as market centers like Mumbai.
- Additional functions which the cities are performing like industrial are Pittsburg and Jamshedpur, Mumbai, Manchester, Shangai, Tokyo.
- Mining and quarrying – Dhanbad, Johannesburg.
- Cultural and religious towns – The places of pilagrimage and worship like Jerusalem, Mecca, Rome, Puri Jagannath, Varanasi, Mathura, Madhurai.are the important cultural and religious towns.
- Educational towns – Some urban centres are well known for education with good institutions, such as schools, colleges and univerisities. Eg. Aligarh, Mysore, Oxford, Dharwad. Cambridge etc.
- Tourist centres – The place where it has specific natural scenery, a good landscape a beach or greenery may become the tourist centres.
Discuss the problems of urban settlements.
Large scale urbanizations results with many problems.
- Economic problems – Increasing population in the urban centres causes unemployment.
- Socio-cultural problems
- Increasing the population results in lacking of social sendees as they cannot reach to everyone.
- Insufficient financial resources fail to create adequate social infrastructure and scarcity ‘ to the basic needs of huge population.
- Environment problems – Urbanization also causes deterioration of environment quality by pollutions and disposal of waste.,
- Problems of slums
- Slums are the most important and severe problem of urban settlements.
- Poverty, housing, sanitation, water facilities are the problems.
- Now-a-days the slums are occupying a large space of the urban centres and are still expanding.
- Ex: Dharavi of Central Mumbai is the fastest grown and the largest slum of Asia.
Explain the factors affecting the location of rural settlements.
- Water supply : Normalv rural settlements are located near water points like rivers, Lakes and springs where water can be obtianed easily.
- Land : Most of the people settle near the fertile land for agriculture purposes.
- Upland location : In the flood plains and marshy lands people have built settlements on highter areas for the sake of protection.
- Building materials : Rural settlements are constructed with available building materials like mud, wood and stone etc.
- Defence : Due to political instability and hostility villages were built on hills and islands. In india most of the forts are located on higher grounds or hills.
Write a brief note on Urban Settlements.
Urbanization is the most modem trend of the world. More than 51 percent of the world population is living in the urban areas. They are involved in the functions such as administration, education, industrial as well a’s socio-cultural activities,
- The word urban is generally used to mean a city or a town, which in larger than villages and engaged in secondary & tertiary occupations.
Acording to census of India, the urban refers to a settlement which fulfil the following criteria.
- All places with a municipality, corporation, contonment board or notified town area committee etc and all other places which satisfied the following criteria:-
- A minimum population of5,000;
- At least 75 percent of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural
- A density of population of a least 400 persons per, sq.km area.
- On account of all facilities urban centers are growing rapidly with large influx of population.
- Approximately 180 cities on the world have emerged as Million cities.
- Industrial development and commercialization have also boosted rapid urbanization.
Thus in the year 1900 the urban population of the world was only 14 percent under the total world population and it has increased to 51 percent in 2013.