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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2015
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
What is Numismatics?
Numismatics is the science of studying coins. Coins being very small in size, contain information in a very short form.
In which year was the Archeological Department of India established?
The Archaeological Department of India established in the year 1904.
Where did Mahavira attain Nirvana?
Mahaveera attained Nirvana at Pavapuri near Rajagruha in Bihar.
Which was the capital of Satavahanas?
Pratisthana (Now it is Paithan, situated in Maharashtra state) was the capital of Satavahanas.
Who composed the Allahabad Pillar inscription?
The Allahabad pillar inscription was composed by Harisena.
Which is the first Kannada inscription?
Halmidi inscription issued by Kakusthavarma in 450 CE, was the first kannada inscription.
Who was the founder of the Slave dynasty?
Qutub-ud-din-Aibak was the founder of the Clave dynasty.
Which was the first capital of the British in India?
Calcutta was the first capital of the British in India (1696 CE).
When was the Conference of World Religions held at Chicago?
On 31st May 1893, World Religions Conference was held at Chicago in America.
Indian National Army.
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Mention any two cities discovered in Indus Civilization.
Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, Dholvira Lothal, and others.
Name any two learned women of Vedic period.
Gargi, Maitreyi Shashwati, Lopamudra, Apala are some of the famous learned women of the vedic period.
Name any two places where Ashokan inscriptions have been found in Karnataka.
Ashokan inscriptions are found at Maski Q Gavimatha Palkikonda, Brahmagiri Siddapuraand Sannathi.
Name any two famous works of the Sangam age.
Tirukural, Silappadigaram, Manimekhalai are the famous works of the Sangam age.
Name any two tittles of Dhruva.
The titles of Dhruva are Dharavarsha, Srivallabha, Nareridrasena Kalivallabha.
Who was the court poet of Vikramaditya VI? Name his work.
Court poet of Vikramaditya. VI was the Kashmiri poet Bilhana. His works are Vikramankadeva Charitam (Biography of Vikramaditya VI)
Who built Taj-Mahal? Where is it?
Shahajahan built Tajmahal (1632-1653)on the bank of Yamuna river. It is in Agra.
Who were the founders of Vijaynagara Empire?
Harihara and Bukkaraya are founders of Vijaynagara Empire on 14th April 1336 C.E
Who were the parents of Basaweshwara?
Madarasa and Madalambike were the parents of Basaveshwara.
Name any two industries established in Mirza Ismail.
Hindustan Aeronuatics Ltd (HAL) Bangalore, Sugar Factory at Mandya, Match factory at Shivamoga, Chemical and Fertilisers Factory at Belagola.
Who signed the Poona Pact?
In 1932-Poona pact was signed between Gandhiji and B.R. Ambedkar.
Name any two members of the JVP Committee.
Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabh Bhai Patel, and Pattabhi Seetharamaiah are the members of the JVP Committee.
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
Explain the town planning of Indus Civilization.
1. Town planning:
Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed.
Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with well-laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.
The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34 feet wide. The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.
People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom.
Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually in side alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bath room was constructed nearest to the street, so that the waste water drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.
4. Drainage system:
One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep, The drains were laid well below the street level.
The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus people had perfected the underground drainage system.
5. The Great Bath (Public bath):
The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 × 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them.
On all sides of the pool, there were steps. Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and fresh water was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.
6. The Granary (Warehouse):
The most remarkable and the largest building at Harappa is the great granary. It measures 169 × 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 × 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was used to store the grains collected.
Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure. which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people carried on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill of them.
The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of Government.
Describe the village local administration of the Cholas.
1. Village (local self) Administration:
An important feature of the Chola. administration was the village autonomy. People of a village looked after administration through their own elected bodies. The Chola inscriptions mention the existence of two types of villages Ur and Brahmadeya Villages.
Ur had its own local assembly, consisting of all the male members of the village excluding untouchables. It looked after all aspects of the village administration. The Brahmadeya villages (Agraharas) were granted by the King to learned brahmins. They had their own assemblies called Mahasabhas, which had complete freedom in governance.
Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka -1, gives us a detailed information about the village administration. (Uttarameruru is in the Chengulpet district of Tamilnadu). The villages enjoyed complete independence in the management of local affairs. Two kinds of assemblies existed which were
- Ur or Urar (kuri) and
- The Mahasabha.
According to the Uttarameruru inscription, Uttarameruru village was divided into 30 parts (Kudumbu). One member from each unit was elected for a period of one year. The representatives of the people were elected through a lucky draw (Kuduvalai) system.
Villagers assembled in the temple and conducted an election through a lucky draw. The names of the candidates were written on palm leaves and put in a pot. Then a small boy was asked to pick out the leaves one after the other in the presence of the people and thus the representatives were elected.
Elected representatives had to work in the Annual, Garden (Tottavariyam) and Tank Bund (Erivariyam) committees called ‘Variyams’. The representatives were called ‘Variya Perumakkae. The village assemblies were autonomous and democratic institutions.
2. Duties of the committees:
The village committees performed duties like the protection of the village properties, collection of taxes and the protection of temples, lakes, groves, and forests, etc. The resolutions of the committees were written down. The central administration did not interfere in the village administration.
Minimum qualifications of members:
The Uttarameruru inscription deals with rules and regulations regarding the election, the qualifications and disqualifications of members. These committees worked for 360 days when fresh elections were held.
Qualifications needed for a member to be elected:
- The candidate should possess a minimum of 1/2 acre of taxable land.
- He should reside in his own house built on his own site.
- Candidate should be more than 35 years o Id and less than 70 years of age.
- Candidate should have knowledge of Vedas, Brahmanakas, and Commerce.
- Candidate should possess a good character.
Disqualifications of members:
- A member was disqualified for re-election if he had been a member of any committee continuously for the previous 3 years.
- Those who were in the committee and who had not submitted accounts and their close relatives.
- Persons who were wicked, cheats, alcoholics, thieves, accused of murdering brahmins and committing adultery.
This way, certain minimum qualifications, and disqualifications were enforced in the village administration. Scholars have termed the Chola village administration as “Small Democratic States”.
Describe the achievements of Amoghavarsha.
1. Amoghavarsha (814-880 C.E.):
After Govinda – III, his son Amoghavarsha came to the throne in 814 C.E. He was the greatest ruler among Rashtrakutas. His early name was Sharva, and Sreevijaya was another name by which he was known. He was only 14 years old, when he ascended the throne.
His uncle Karkasuvarnavarsha became his guardian. Taking advantage of this, many subordinate Kings under the Rashtrakutas, rose in rebellion against Amoghavarsha.
The Ganga ruler Shivamara – II rose against Amoghavarsha and after his death his son Rachamalla continued the war against the Rashtrakutas. Amoghavarsha’s commander Bankesha fought against the Gangas. Neither side could achieve superemacy.
At last, Amoghavarsha gave his daughter Chandralabbe in marriage to the Ganga Prince Bhutuga -1. This matrimonial alliance between them, finally brought peace with the Gangas.
In 830 C.E., Amoghavarsha declared war against Vijayadhitya of the Vengi Chalukyas. He defeated the Chalukyas finally at Vingavalli. Later, he developed matrimonial relations with the Chalukyas by giving his daughter Sheelamahadevi to the Chalukyan prince Vishnuvardhana – V (son of Vijayadhitya) and brought peace in that front.
Amoghavarsha had similar relations with the Pallavas too, by giving his daughter Sankha in marriage to Nandivarma – III of the Pal lava dynasty. Thus, Amoghavarsha achieved much peace by matrimonial alliances with the Gangas, Chalukyas, and Pallavas.
According to the inscriptions of Neelagunda and Sirur, Amoghavarsha was respected in Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Malwa and Vengi Kingdoms. In his last days, he had to face the rebellion of his own son.
The Arab traveller Sulaiman, visited his court in 851 C.E. He remarked that “The Kingdom of Amoghavarsha was one of the four great Empires of the world”. (The others being the Roman Empire, the Chinese Empire and the Khalifa of Baghdad).
During his last days, Amoghavarsha had to face the rebellion of Yuvaraja Krishna. Bankesh faced this rebellion ably. In memory of this victory, Amoghavarsha built the city of ‘Bankapura’ to honour Bankesha and made him the Governor of Banavasi.
He built the new Rashtrakuta capital of Malakheda. Inscriptions have described that “Amoghavarsha’s capital was so great and grand, that it would put to shame even the capital of Lord Indra”.
3. Religion and Literature:
Even though Amoghavarsha was the follower of Jainism, he extended equal respect and importance to other religions. He granted liberal grants and endowments to all religious institutions.
He was a great devotee of Goddess Mahalakshmi of Kolhapur. Sanjan inscription says that he cut off his left thumb as a sacrifice to Mahalakshmi, to protect his subjects from plague and famine.
Amoghavarsha was peace loving, a patron of literature and a scholar himself. He wrote ‘Prashnottara Ratnamala’ in Sanskrit. He patronised scholars like Jinasenacharya, Mahaveeracharya, Shakatayana, Srivijaya and others, Srivijaya wrote “Kaviraja Marga” in Kannada.
Kavirajamarga was the first literary work in Kannada. It refers to the fact that Karnataka was extending from Cauvery to Godavari. Amoghavarsha had titles like Nrupatunga, Athishay adhavala, Veeranarayana, Nitinirantara, Rajasimha, Rattamarthanda, Laxmi Vallabendra, Sri Vallabha, etc., vested on him.
Explain the achievements of Mohmad Gawan.
1. Mahmud Gawan 1463 – 1481 B.C.:
He was the Prime minister of Mohammad Shah- III. He was a fascinating personality. He was born in Persia in 1411 C.E. He was well educated and came to India with the intention of carrying on trade. He visited the court of Allauddin Ahmad Shah – II.
The Sultan offered Gawan an administrative post. Gawan entered into Sultan’s service and by his sincerity and honesty, rose to the position of the Prime minister(Wazir) in 1463 C.E. He carried on the administration of the state and saved it from all dangers.
As Prime minister (Wazir), he undertook many conquests and implemented reforms in the Kingdom.
a. Mahmud Gawan first paid attention for the establishment of unity and integrity of the Kingdom.
b. Mohammad Khilji of Malwa tried to enter the Deccan Region. Gawan expelled the Sultan of Malwa beyond Bidar, made a treaty with the Sultan and established political stability.
c. Gawan conquered Rajamahendri and Kondaveedu. In the west, he extended the territory to the coast, by annexing Konkan. Gajapathi Kapilendra of Orissa invaded the Kingdom. Gawan successfully repelled his attack.
d. He subdued many chieftains in the western coastal belt and conquered Hubli, Belagavi (Belgaum) and Goa regions from the Vijayanagara Empire.
e. The number of provinces was increased from 4 to 8 for the convenience of administration. They were called ‘Tarafs’. The Jahagir system was abolished. The administration was highly centralised.
f. Gawan classified all the land of the Kingdom on the basis of fertility and irrigation facility. Land was surveyed and
the revenue was fixed. The collection of revenue was only in cash.
g. Gawan established a Madarasa, a College for higher education, at Bidar in 1472 C.E. He built a library and collected over 3000 manuscripts from all over the world. He was a scholar. He wrote books on religion, mathematics, literature and medicine. His important works were Manazir- ul- Insha and Riyaz- ul – Insha.
Gawan’s progress was not tolerated by the native muslim leaders. They made false allegations against him. He was beheaded in 1481 C.E. After his death, the Bahamani Kingdom started declining.
Describe the life and teachings of Ramanujacharya.
1. Early life of Ramanujacharya (1017-1137 C.E.):
Ramanuja was the great exponent of Vishishtadvaita or qualified monoism. He was born in 1017 C.E. at Sri Perambadur near Chennai (T.N.). His parents were Keshva Soinayaji and Kantimati. It is believed that Ramanuja was the incarnation of Adisesha.
He studied in Ranchi under Yadhavaprakasha. As per the wishes of his mother, he married Tangamma at the age of 16. His married life was very unhappy. As his wife did not co-operate with him in his spiritual exercises, he left his family and became a sanyasi.
He went to Srirangam. Later. Ramanuja became the head of Srirangam mutt and popularized Vaishnavism. This was not liked by Kulottunga-Chola, and Ramanuja left Srirangam and came to Karnataka.
2. Srivaishnava or Vishishtadvaita (qualified monoism) Philosophy:
This was propounded by Ramanuja. He differed from Shankaracharya’s views in many points. According to Ramanuja, the entire universe is divided into three parts. They are God (Brahma), individual Soul (Chit) and the world (Achit) The universe was controlled by God.
1. Vishnu is the supreme God, Sri Lakshmi is the mediator between God and humans. (Universal Soul) Vishnu may be called Brahma.
2. God is omniscient, permanent and possesses all the great qualities (God is Suguna) like mercy, beauty, justice, etc.
3. God is the creator of all things in the world. The individual soul and the world are controlled by God.
4. According to Ramanuja, the Soul does not have independent existence. The individual Soul has limited power and it can never become identical with God.
All Souls are the creations of God. In a state of salvation, the individual Soul becomes free from birth and rebirth and enjoys eternal bliss in the presence of God.
5. Ramanuja condemned the illusion (Maya vada) of Shankaracharya For Ramanuja, the world is not an illusion but is real.
6. Ramanuja advocated Bhakti Marga as the only path for the attainment of Salvation. Through Bhakti, the individual Soul gets redemption and attains salvation.
7. Ramanuja advocated the worship of Vishnu accompanied by Lakshmi. His Philosophy is known as Srivaishnava or qualified monoism. There are two elements in Ramanuja’s Bhaktimarga.
- Prapatthi – absolute surrender to God.
- Acharyabhimana- Subjugation to guru.
Ramanuja preached that irrespective of one’s caste, the sure way to salvation was through Bhakti. He was an enlightened saint who tried to wipe out the evils of the caste system. He was able to equate all human beings at par, by breaking down the artificial barriers of the caste system.
Describe the role of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Socio-religious reform movement.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the great socio-religious reformer of modern India. He is called the “Father and prophet of Indian Renaissance”. He had a deep knowledge of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, and sufism.
He was very much influenced by the English language and western thoughts. His primary aim was to reform the society and religion. He had to face the challenges of orthodox Hindus and fanatic Christian missionaries.
1. Religious reforms:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy wanted to bring about reforms in Hindustan by getting rid of idol-worship, sacrifices, and caste rigidity. On 20th August 1828, he founded the Brahmo Samaj at Calcutta. The main purpose of the Brahmo Samaj was to establish a casteless society based on common worship.
Brahmo Samaj taught that ‘God is one, every religion possesses truth, idol worship and ritualism are meaningless and social evils have no connection with religion”. The followers of all religions were invited to come and worship in the same temple in a spirit of brotherhood.
2. Social reforms:
He carried on a long struggle against the social evils like the practice of Sati, child marriages, polygamy, untouchability, and purdah system. Widows used to burn themselves up in the funeral pyres of their husbands and Raja Ram Mohan Roy organised agitations against this inhuman custom of Sati.
It was due to his persuasion that Lord William Bentinck abolished Sati in 1829 and declared it a legal offence. He worked for the improvement of the status of women and for their education. He encouraged intercaste marriages and remarriage of widows.
What were the important factors that led to the growth of Indian Nationalism?
The important factors for the growth of Indian Nationalism were as listed below.
1. Political Unity and Uniform Administration:
The British conquered the whole of India and brought it under a single administration. This made the people of India unite psychologically. Now they faced many common problems and a common enemy. The concept that “We are all Indians” was created in the minds of the Indian people. The British imperialism gave India political unity.
2. Impact of English Education:
A wave of liberalism and individual freedom was passing through English politics and literature in the 19th century. The enlightened Indians began to compare their existing conditions to that of Europe.
By the study of English literature and history, educated Indians were filled with the spirit of democracy and national patriotism. English language was the language of communication for the national leaders.
3. Discrimination against Indians:
The British considered themselves to be racially superior to Indians. They had the feeling that Indians were incapable and unworthy of trust. Therefore, they denied higher posts to Indians. The British officers often berated Indians as Kutthe (dogs) Niggers (blacks) and Suvars (pigs).
The Queen’s proclamation in 1858 promised to Indians, that they would be appointed to higher posts on the basis of their merit, irrespective of their caste, religion or race, but this policy was never implemented: Indian culture and heritage were looked down upon by the British. This unjust policy created great discontent among the educated class.
4. Role of Indian press and literature:
The Indian press contributed a lot to the national awakening. Newspapers openly criticised the political policy of the British Government. Newspapers like the Bombay Samachar, Indian Mirror, The Kesari, Hindu, Patriot, etc., greatly influenced the nationalist feelings.
Many articles and poems inspiring nationalism were being published both in English and the vernacular languages. Scholars like R. G. Bhandarkar, R. L. Mitra, Tilak, Swami Vivekananda, Max Muller, Monier Williams, and others conducted researches and brought to light the glorious cultural past of India.
The cultural heritage of India filled the nationalists with pride and self-confidence. For e.g. writings of Ravindra Nath Tagore and the inspiring song ‘Vandemataram’ by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee stirred the hearts of Indians.
5. The Economic Policy of the British:
The British considered India to be only a colony which provided cheap raw materials and market for their finished goods. Their economic policy destroyed the economic structure that existed in India and the nation became poorer. The Indian cottage industries suffered severely. The economic deterioration of India was attributed to the British rule.
6. Network of Communication:
The British followed reactionary policies like divide and rule, subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse, annexing States quoting misrule, etc., to establish political supremacy over India. Indian Rulers and common people were discontent with the British policies.
The introduction of the telegraph network, postal and railways looked like efforts to chain the country. The nationalist movement spread very quickly throughout India. It made inter-provincial relations and exchange of thoughts possible. The national leaders visited every nook and corner of the country and made propaganda.
Indian Nationalism is the offspring and outcome of the British rule. All the above factors directly or indirectly led to national awakening among Indians.
Trace the factors responsible for creating unity among Kannadigas.
The following were the important factors responsible for creating unity among Kannadigas.
1. The newspapers like Samyukta Karnataka, Vishala Karnataka, Karnataka Vrutha, etc., propagated unity through their editorials.
2. Cultural and Political organizations like Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sanga (1890), Karnataka Education Society (1893), Kannada Sahitya Parishat (1915), Karnataka Sabha (1916), Belgaum Congress Session (1924), Karnataka Ekeekarana Samithi (1924), etc., worked towards unifying the Kannada speaking territories.
3. Huilgol Narayana Rao wrote “Udayavagali Namma Cheluva Kannada Nadu”, Shantakavi wrote ‘Rakshisu Karnataka Devi’. Kuvempu – “Jaya Bharatha Jananiya Tanujathe Jayahe Karnataka Mate”, B. M. Shree – “Yerisu Harisu Kannadada Bavuta”, Mangesh Pai – ‘Taye Bare Mogava there Kannadigara Matheye” etc.,
The above-mentioned poets and their poems depicted the past glory and inspired nationalism and patriotism among Kannadigas.
4. AlurVenkara Rao wrote a famous book ‘Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava’ and similar books. This book depicted the past glory of Karnataka. Alur Venkata Rao was called as Karnataka Kulapurohita.
5. Mahatma Gandhi also accepted the formation of linguistic states during the Belgaum Congress session in 1924.
6. The Nehru Committee recommeded the unification of Karnataka in 1928.
7. The efforts of many leaders like – Alur Venkata Rao, Siddappa Kambli, Goruru Ramaswamy Iyengar, Srinivasa Rao Mangalavede, Andanappa Doddameti, and others, filled the public with immense linguistic pride and inspiration.
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. (5 + 5 = 10)
A. Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of ancient India provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
- Jallianwala Bagh
1. Taxila (Takshashila):
It was the capital of the Gandhara Province now in Pakistan. Takshashila University was an important educational centre in ancient India. Kautilya(Chanukya) was a teacher in this University.
2. Kanchi (Kanchipuram):
It is near Chennai in TamilNadu. It was the capital of the Pallavas. The city is famous for Shaiva and Vaishanava temples. The famous Kamakshi temple is located here.
It is presently the capital of India, located on the banks of river Jamuna. It was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Marty monuments like Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Jami Masjid, etc., are located here.
4. Bidar :
It was the capital city of the Bahamani Kingdom. Here Mahamud Gawan built a Madarasa.
It is the capital of Maharashtra. It was the main British settlement in India. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held here in 1885.
It is located in the city of Amritsar in Punjab. During the freedom movement, General Dyer massacred here unarmed people who were protesting the Rowlatt Act on 13th April 1919.
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected seawater and made salt and deliberately violated the salt law.
It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramanda Coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.
For Visually Challenged Students only
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
B. Why is Gupta age called “The Golden Age” in the Indian History?
Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age’ and the “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England.
Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.
Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular.
Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age. The Gupta Rulers performed vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta- II, were worshippers of Vishnu.
They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu). Image worship, rites, and ceremonies became very common. The vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya and Rajasuya yagas were performed with all splendour.
Buddhism also enjoyed great popularity during the Gupta age The Buddh ist caves at Ajantha. Ellora, Kanheri, and Karle belong to the Gupta period. Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.
Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholors. They paid special attention to education. Taxila, Nalanda, Ajantha, and Saranatha were well known Universities of the Gupta era.
Pataliputra and Vallabhi were great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature. Philosophy, Arithmatic, Astrology, and Science.
The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described ds a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramadhitya-II) partronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholors in his court.
Among them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashjya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc., Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.
5. Other important writers and their works:
Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam acharithe, Charaka- Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka- Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta- Manth rashasthra and others.
The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.
6. Development of science:
The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine, and Metallurgy.
Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works- Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science.
Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata(physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha.
Dhanvantari, (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu. He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period.
It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun, etc., all these hundreds of years.
7. Art and Architecture:
The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. The Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose.
The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism, and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh, etc were the centres of their artistic activities.
The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated.
Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivalings were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishvvara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front.
For example, the Shiva temple at Bhumara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi, etc., follow this design.
In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated.
The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no. 1 and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.
Give an account of the impact of British – rule on Indian Economy.
Land revenue was the main source of income to the Government. The British had incurred huge expenditure on administration, maintenance of army and waging many wars. To make up the burden of expenditure, they introduced some new systems of revenue collection in different provinces in India. They were:
1. Zamindari system (or) Permanent land revenue settlement:
Lord Cornwallis introduced the Zamindari system in 1793 in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and U.P. According to this system, the East India Company entered into an agreement with the Zamindars.
The Zamindars were given permanent ownership of Land, which they cultivated with the help of tenants. Out of the total revenue collected, the Zamindars had to pay regularly the land revenue at 89%.
Merits and demerits of the Zamindari system:
- The company was assured of a regular and fixed income.
- In due course the Zamindars became a strong political force and the Company secured the loyalty of the Zamindars to support its colonalism.
- Zamindars exploited the peasants by collecting high rates of revenue.
- Zamindars led a life of comfort in cities. There came into being agents in between the landlords and the tenants.
2. Ryotwari or Munro system:
This system was introduced by Governor Sir Thomas Munro in the Bombay and Madras presidencies in 1820 C.E.
Ryotwari system established direct settlement between the Company and the cultivator. The peasant (Ryot) was recognized as the owner of land on the condition, that he paid the land revenue regularly.
The land revenue fixed was about 50% the value of the yield. It was fixed on the basis of the quality of the soil and the nature of the crops grown. The land revenue was fixed not on a permanent basis, but was revised periodically every 20 to 30 years. Under this system,
- The farmers were exploited by the Company because the land revenue assessment was very high.
- The cultivator had to pay revenue even when his produce was destroyed by drought or floods.
- The farmers had to take loans from moneylenders to pay the land revenue. It they failed to pay the land tax, farmers forfeited ownership of their land.
3. Mahalwari system:
This system was introduced by Lord William Bentinck in North – western India and the central parts of India in 1828 C.E. The Company entered into settlements with the Estate or Mahal (village).
The farmers within the village were collectively considered to be the owners of the land and were also collectively responsible for the payment of land revenue. Mahalwari was a mixture of both Zamindari and Ryotwari systems.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a Shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha.
He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights.
Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.
He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit.
During that period he self-inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.
Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.
2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer Park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).
Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara(U.P.)at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.
3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.
Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires. Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.
Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Atyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery ) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow) ,
- To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.
When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace arid enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
Ibis path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas.
Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.
Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.
Critically examine the administrative experiments of Mohammed Bin Tughalak.
a. Administrative reforms (experiments) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne- with the title Mohammed-bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.
1. Register of the land revenue:
Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.
2. Tax increase in Doab area:
The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine.
People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were, unique to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE:
Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were:
a. (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.
b. He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital.
Reasons for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony, etc resulted in death and sufferings of many.
The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.
4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE:
Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver, etc., caused much loss to the treasury.
Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the. Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert.
The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:
1. People could not grasp its real significance
2. Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
3. Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as a standard unit of exchange.
4. People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.
Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences.
According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.
Sri M.Vishveshwariah is called the “Maker of Modern Mysore”. Explain.
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist a liberal-minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as “The Architect of Modem Mysore”.
2. Early life and career of M.V. :
Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivass Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.
He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.
3. Administrative reforms:
Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act.
This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.
4. Industrial Development:
‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial work shop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana.
Small scale and Cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, wood works, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.
5. Educational reforms:
Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourge education among the economically and socially backward classes.
Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore.
His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.
6. Irrigational scheme:
He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.
He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks, and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.
7. Railway reforms:
Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore – Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.
8. Relief works:
During Sir. M. Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.
Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, tire British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.
Discuss the role of Gandhiji in India National Movement.
Gandhiji an Era-1920 to 1947:
The Montague – Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Jalian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. He advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Cooperation to the British Government.
1. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) :
A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the cal I was unprecedented. Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetlia, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya, etc., also joined the movement.
Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed. Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of national pride.
2. The Chowri – Chowra incident:
5th February 1922: Non-Cooperation Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji toured the whole country to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. NonCooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison.
A violent mob at Ghowri Chowra (U.P.) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policemen were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.
3. The Swaraj Party – 1923:
Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections. But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but constitutional methods.
4. Simon Commission in 1927:
The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any Indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.
5. Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929):
The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative proposal acceptable to all the & political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928.
Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha, and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.
At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as the Independence day and authorised Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement
6. Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930:
In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was – decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands. Without any postivie response, the British nationalised the production of Salt.
Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the sea water, violating the salt laws.
The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leaders were put behind bars. Salt became a symbol of our National Pride.
7. The first Round Table Conference 1930-31:
Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison.
A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government.
The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February 1931. Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.
8. Second Round Table Conference 1931:
Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked on the question of the minorities.
Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes. Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims.
The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’. This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.
9. 3rd Round Table Conference 1932:
This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935.
This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Governments. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.
10. Second World War and National Movement in 1939:
The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939.
Gandhiji launced individual Satyagraha against the British. The British tried to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress.
Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constitiuent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the British in the war.
11. Cripps Mission 1942:
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to India after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a drowning Bank”.
12. Quit India Movement in 1942:
The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on 8th August 1942. It was declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The British Government arrested the Congress leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned.
They did not know what to do next. As a result people took to violence. They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations, etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines.
They burnt Government buildings and Railway carriages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.
13. The Cabinet Mission 1946:
During his Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps, Lawrence and A.V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan.
The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnali called for ‘Direct Action Day and insisted upon having Pakistan (Lekar rahenge Pakistan). This resulted in communal violences at many places, bloodshed, and killings. Aconstituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasad on 9th December 1946. The Congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.
14. Independence and Partition: (June 1947)
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country.
On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947. This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor-General.
Sardar Vailababhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.
PART – F
VI. Match the following: (5 × 1 = 5)
1 – (b) Mudrarakshasa
2 – (a) Kailasanatha Temple
3 – (d) Din-i-ilahi
4 – (e) Permanent Zamindari System
5 – (c) Karnataka Gathavaibhava.
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)
(a) Quit India Movement
(b) Battle of Plassey
(c) Battle of Talikote
(d) Fahien’s visit of India
(e) Kalinga War (261 BCE)
(d) Fahien’s visit of India (399-4 MCE)
(c) BattleofTalikote( 1565)
(b) Battle of Plassey (1757)
(a) Quit India Movement (1942).