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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Question Bank Chapter 1 Introduction
2nd PUC History Introduction One Mark Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following Questions in one word or a sentence each.
From which language is the word ‘India’ derived?
The word ‘India’ is derived from the Persian word ‘Indos’ which stands for Sindhu, the important river of the subcontinent.
Name the work that mentions the extent of ancient Karnataka.
‘Kavirajamarga’ of Sri Vijaya refers that ancient Karnataka extended from Cauvery in the south to Godavari in the north.
What is meant by Numismatics?
Numismatics is the science of studying coins. Coins being very small in size, contain information in a very short form.
What is excavation?
Excavation is the scientific digging of earth for unearthing ancient buildings or artefacts belonging to earlier periods.
Whose conquests do the Aihole inscriptions describe?
Aihole inscriptions describe about the conquests of Pulakeshi-II.
Buddacharita was written by Ashwagosha.
Which is the famous work of Pliny?
“Natural Historia” is the famous work of Pliny.
What is meant by Archaeology?
Archaeology means the scientific study of human antiquities. (The term archaeology is derived from the greek words “Archaoius” meaning ancient and “logos” meaning discourse or knowledge)
What is Epigraphy?
The scientific study of inscriptions is called epigraphy. (Inscriptions are writings found on hard substances like stone, metal etc)
Who wrote the book Indica’?
The Greek Ambassador Megaslhanes at the court of King Chandragupta Maurya, wrote the bookTndica’.
2nd PUC History Introduction Two Mark Questions and Answers
II. Answer the following Questions in two words or two sentences each.
Name any two passes that connect India with the west.
What was the extent of India according to Vishnupurana?
According to Vishnupurana, the extent of India was the present Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Srilanka. Reference to this Indian sub-continent is found in Vishnupurana.
Mention any two names of India.
The sub-continent is called by different names such as Bharatavarsha, Bharatakhanda, Bharata, Jambudweepa, India and Hindustan.
Name some physical features of India.
- The Himalayan mountains in the North,
- Plains of Hindustan (or)TheIndo-Gangetic plain,
- The Deccan Plateau,
- The Coastal regions and
- The Thar desert.
Name a few mountain ranges of India.
Himalayan mountains, Vindhya and Satpura mountains, Aravalli range, Eastern and Western Ghats etc.,
Mention some dominant religions of Indian origin.
Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism have originated in India.
Name some world heritage sites of India.
UNO has recognized more than 30 historical heritage sites in India. Some famous ones are the Hill forts of Rajasthan, Khajuraho, Konark, Tajmahal, Jantar-Mantar, Gaya, Sanchi, Ajanta, Ellora, Hampi, Aihole, Pattadakallu, Madurai, Kanchi, Mahabalipuram, Churches of Goa etc.,
Name some universities of ancient India.
The universities of Nalanda, Taxila, Ujjain, Prayag, Vikramashila, Kashi and Kanchi were the educational centres of ancient India.
Name some dynasties of ancient India.
Mauryas, Guptas, Kushans, Vardhanas, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas, Pallavas etc., were some of the ancient dynasties in India.
Name some dynasties of medieval India.
Moghuls, Marathas, Rajaputs, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara etc., were the important medieval dynasties in India.
What was the extent of Karnataka according to Kavirajamarga?
According to Kavirajamarga, in the ancient times, Karnataka extended from Cauvery in the south to Godavari (AP) in the north.
Name some important dynasties that ruled Karnataka.
Kadambas, Gangas, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagaras, Bahamani Sultans, Wodeyars etc., ruled Karnataka.
Write any two physical features of Karnataka.
Geographically, Karnataka may be divided into 5 regions having different physical features. They are:
- The west coast belt or the coastal region,
- The western ghats (Sahyadri mountain) and Malnad area,
- The transitional belt or Eastern ghats,
- The northern plains or belt and
- The southern plains (Bangalore, Mysore, Kolar, Mandya, Tumkur).
‘No sources No history’ Why?
History is the record of past events of humans. But as these events cannot be reproduced, historians try to reconstruct the past, based on the available sources. Without sources, the historical events become purely legendary. Hence, ‘No sources, No history’.
What is the difference between prehistoric and historic periods?
The period about which written records are not available is known as prehistoric period and the period about which we have written records, is known as historic period.
Mention any two uses of coins in the reconstruction of history.
Coins help us to understand the chronology (period), dynasties, economic conditions, religions, scripts and languages. They also give information regarding metalluragy, artistic abilites, titles, commercial contact and extent of the Empires etc.
Why are inscriptions the most reliable sources in the reconstruction of history?
Inscriptions are the most valuable, reliable, authentic and direct sources in the reconstruction
of history. They are generally contemporary and related to the events. So they are more reliable. They give a lot of information about the past events.
What are Archaeological sources?
The important Archaeological sources are inscriptions, coins, monuments, seals, household articles, terracotta figurines, tools, pottery, weapons, paintings etc. These provide us with valuable and useful information to reconstruct history.
Mention the two kinds of literary sources.
Literary (written records) sources can be classified into two types. They are i) Indigenous (native) literary sources, ii) Foreign accounts or Foreign literary sources.
Name the epics of India.
The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are the two great epics of India.
Mention the two works of Aryabhata.
Aryabhata wrote on science and mathematics like Suryasiddhantaand Aryabhatiyam.
Name any two Chinese pilgrims who visited India.
A number of Chinese Buddhist pilgrims visited India. Important among them were Fahian (Gupta age). Hiuen Tsang (Harshavardhana) and Itsing (7th century CE)
Name some foreigners who visited the Vijayanagara Empire.
Nicolo Conti of Italy, Abdul Razzak of Persia, Barbosa and Domingo Paes of Portugal, Niketin of Russia, Fernao Nuniz were some of the foreigners who visited the Vijayanagara Empire.
2nd PUC History Introduction Five Mark Questions and Answers
III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.
Explain briefly the impact of geography on Indian History.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different climatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land, where we see unity in diversity. “India” is the epitome of the world. On the basis of its physical features, India can be broadly divided into 5 geographical divisions. They are,
- The Himalayan regions,
- The plains of Hindustan or the Northern plains,
- The Deccan plateau or plains,
- The coastal region or coastline and
- The Thar desert.
The Himalayan region: The Himalayas separate India from the rest of Asia. These are the highest mountain ranges in the world. The Himalayas have played a very important role in the indian history. They prevent the cold winds and invaders from the north. The snow-capped mountain ranges have given birth to the north Indian rivers (Sindhu, Ganga, Yamuna and Brahmaputra). They are rich in minerals and natural wealth.
The Northern Plains: It is located between the Himalayas in the north and the Vindhya mountains to the south. From Assam in the east to Punjab in the west it runs over 2400 kms. This region is watered by the great rivers like the Sindhu and her tributaries in the west, Ganga and Yamuna in the center and Brahmaputra valley in the east. These rivers have made the plains rich and fertile, and they were the cradles of civilizations and Empires. The great Indus valley civilization and vedic culture developed in this region. The Aryan culture was brought up in the Indo-Gangetic plain. The northern passes such as Khybar, Bolan etc., have helped indians to have commercial and cultural relations with the outside world.
The western desert and the dense forests of the Deccan plateau : This region includes the Kathiawar (Gujarat) and Rann of Kutch (Rajastan). It stretches almost upto and beyond the Aravalli range, which is now almost dry in the hot weather. So, this region has turned the inhabitants into hard working and warlike.
Deccan Plateau : It is a tringular peninsula or ‘v’ shaped land. It is surrounded by the Vindhyas in the north and by sea on the other three sides (Bay of Bengal in the east, Arabian sea in the west and the Indian ocean in the south). They have helped develop the commerical and cultural relations with the west. The geographical diversity and existence of various races like Dravidian, Alpine, Mongolian and different tribes have led to the development of different languages and cultures. The river valleys in the north and south have made the country agrarian. They have also influenced the rise and fall of many dynasties and growth of many religious, cultural, educational and commercial centres.
Coastline: Eastern (Coromandel coast) and western (Malabar) coastal plains are traversed by many big rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery. Abundance of rain and favourable climate has resulted in the growth of rich flora (plants of a particular region) and fauna (Animals of a region). Excluding the Himalayas, hills and the desert area, the whole country falls in the tropical climate zone. The atmosphere is conducive for the all-round growth of mankind.
Explain the features of Indian History.
India is the 7th largest country in area and the second most populous country in the world.
The special features of Indian history are:
1) Continuity of civilization and culture: India has one of the earliest histories in the world. The physical features of our country, full of variety, richness and contrasts tend to divide India into different local zones. However, it has 4000 years of continuous history and continuity of civilization and culture, like China.
2) Evolution in phases : Its has developed in various stages with necessary improvements.
We find a connecting link of events from the Indus to the Vedic period, Vedic to Islamic and Christian influences. ‘
3) Foreign invasions : The natural barriers on the frontiers of India provided security from foreign invasions. However, foreigners like Greeks, Persians, Huns, Shakas, Arabs, Turks, Kushans, Afghans and others entered India from the Khyber and Bolan passes. All these invaders contributed to the Indian culture. The historical monuments and other structures like Forts built by these invaders are attracting tourists even today. South India had immunity from such invasions and developed a distinct culture of its own.
4) Religious tolerance (Dominant and tolerant Hindu faith): India is home for Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Sikhs, Muslims, Parsis, Christians and several tribal faiths and practices. Indians believe in the concept of ‘Vasudhaivaka kutumbakam’ and ‘Sarve janalia sukhino bhavantu’, which means that the whole world is one family and let all the people be happy.
5) Indian contributions to the world : India has contributed immensely in the fields of literature, philosophy, science, art, culture, architecture, mathematics, medicine, astronomy etc., UNO has recognized more than 30 Indian historical sites as centers of world heritage, such as the Hill forts of Rajasthan, Khujaraho, Konark,Tajmahal, Bodh Gaya, Sanchi, Ajanta, Ellora, Hampi, Aihole, Pattadakallu, Madurai, Kanchi, Churches of Goa etc., Yoga, Ayurveda and other artistic specimens are the special contributions of Indians to the world. The great contributions of Indian mathematicians have enriched the world with the concept of zero and the decimal system. The ancient universites of Nalanda, Takshashila, Ujjain, Prayag, Vikramshila, Kashi and Kanchi attracted students from different countries of the world. India was at the height of its intellectual and spiritual glory.
6) Unity in diversity: India possesses diverse physical and geographical features and also shows diversity racially, linguistically, socially, economically, religiously and almo.-t in every sphere of human activities. Inspite of all these diversities, there are many unifying forces that have kept India united.
‘Unity in diversity is the unique feature of Indian history’. Explain.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different c!im«tie conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land where we sec unity in diversity.
1) Geographical diversity: India possesses diverse geographical features. The Himalayan region has a cold climate, the Indo-Gangetic plain has a temperate climate and the Deccan plateau has a tropical climate. The hot desert of Rajasthan, coastlines, evergreen forests, heavy (Assam) and low (Rajastan) rainfall areas etc., have added to the variety of our flora and fauna.
2) Racial and linguistic diversities: People belonging to different races and ethnic groups like Dravidian, Negroids, Alpines, Mongoloids etc., inhabited this country. No wonder, India has been described as ‘an ethnological museum’. Linguistic diversity is also another unique feature of India. There are more than 1600 minor dialects and 15 major languages in India.
3) Social and religious diversity : India is a land of different religions, castes, cults, faiths, customs, racial types, languages, variety of food habits and costumes. It has both patriarchal and matriarchal family systems. Monogamy, polygamy and polyandry are also practiced. Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism have originated in this land. People belonging to Christianity, Islam, Jewism, Zoroastrianism (Parsees) and the innumerable sub-sects of all these religions, co-exist here with great harmony.
4) Economic and Political diversities : The political history of India shows a lack of political unity. The whole of India never came under a single administration. Indian resources are also unevenly distributed. On one hand, we find some regions highly prosperous and well developed and on the other hand, certain areas very poor and underdeveloped. The urban parts of India are highly developed and modem compared to the rural sectors.
In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying factors that have kept India united.
Important among them are the following ones:
1) Geographical unity : India has well defined boundaries which provide a permanent shape with the Himalayas to the north and oceans below surrounding the southern parts. This has isolated India from the rest of the world and formed a separate geographical unit.
2) Administrative unity: The administrative system of ancient India was mostly identical and uniform, and followed the set of rules laid down by Chanakya in his ‘ Arthashastra’. The King who brought different parts of the country under his sovereignty came to be called as Chakravarthi. Mouryas, Guptas, Vardhanas, Chalukyas, Moghuls etc., have all tried unsuccessfully to bring political unity in the country, by expanding their territories and bringing larger areas under a single ruler.
3) Uniformity of education and literature: Sanskrit, the divine language, vedic literature including Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgeetha have instilled the feelings of oneness and also added to the unity of India. Knowledge of Sanskrit had enabled persons to move freely across India and exchange their views with people from other parts of the country. Languages like Pali, Prakriti, Persian, and English also played an important role. A composite culture evolved during Muslim and British rules. Hence, Indians have developed the spirit of tolerance and co-existence.
4) Religious and social ceremonies: India is a land of various religions, castes, creeds and sects. People here lead a life of harmony. They participate in the religious and social ceremonies of each other. This has inculcated a feeling of oneness.
Recent changes: Indian constitution and the Government, the present economic and social conditions, the effects of globalization etc., have reduced the differences further. Global unity transcends the innumerable diversities of race, skin colour, language, dress, customs, and traditions. This again has ushered in unity among the people.
Write a note on the contributions of foreign writers in reconstructing the history of India.
Foreign Accounts: There are some interesting sources of information from the accounts narrated by foreign writers. India had attracted many foreign traders, pilgrims, philosophers and invaders. Many of them left their records, impressions and opinions about India. These help to fill in the gaps about important events.
Greek and Roman writers: Megasthenes, theAmbassadarof the Greek Sovereign Seleucos to the court of Chandragupta Mourya, has left a detailed account of India during the Mauryan period, in his book ‘Indica’. Ptolemy, another greek, wrote a geographical account of India in the 2nd century AD. He gave information regarding the commercial relations of Greece with ancient India. ‘The Periplus of the Erithrean sea’, a work by an unknown greek author mentions many coastal towns, rulers and products of India. Pliny wrote ‘Natural Historia’ (1st century AD) which gives some idea regarding Indo-Roman trade relations and the political conditions of India.
Chinese Accounts: There were some notable Chinese pilgrims who visited India, Fahian visited India (The reign of Chandragupta-II) in early 5th century AD and has given a vivid picture of many cities and Ashoka’s palace. He also gives information about the Gupta administration. Hiuen Tsang (629-645 AD) visited India in the 7th century AD. He left valuable information in his book ‘Siyuki’ (Records of the western world. He visited the court of Harshavardhana and Pulikeshi-II. He has given a vivid picture of the education, religion, society and administration of their regimes. He has also mentioned the battle of Narmada and the defeat of Harshavardhana.
Itsing visited India during the end of the 7th century AD. He had travelled across India extensively and gives information regarding various cities of India like Rajagraha, Kasi and Nalanda and describes the status of Buddhism in India at that period.
Arab and other writers: Muslim writers and historians have given valuable contributions to the reconstruction of our history. Prominent among them were Firdousi’s (Ibn Hassan) ‘Shahanama’, ‘Babamama’ by Emperor Babar, ‘Jahangimama’byJahangirand ‘Akbamama’ by Abdul Fa al and many more. The Arab travellers, Sulaiman Albcruni (contemporary of Mohammad Ghazni) and Ibn Batuta, have left their records about India. Other travellers like Nicolo Conti of Italy, Abdul Razzak (Persia), Barbosa and Domingo Paes (Portugal) and Niketin (Russia) have given a lot of information regarding Vijayanagara and Bahamani Empires.
Write a note on the importance of Archaeological sources in reconstructing the history of India. tor) Estimate the value of the archaeological sources for the study of Ancient Indian history.
Archaeology is a systematic study of antiquities. It deals with the actual remains of the dim. distant past by way of inscriptions (Epigraphy), coins (Numismatics) and monument. These provide us with valuable and useful information to enable us to reconstruct our history
Excavations: Excavation is the scientific digging of earth for unearthing sources of historical importance. Excavations provide an insight into the social, cultural and religious life of the people of some earlier era. The archaeological remains found during excavations ai v put to scientific tests by carbon -14 dating and potassium methods to ascertain their age.
Inscriptions: Inscriptions are windings found on hard substances such as stone, metal, wood, shell, pottery etc. Inscriptions provide information about the type of coins that were in circulation, trade and commerce, the agricultural system that existed, names of Kin. their dynasties and the Era. Culture of the region was also often reflected in inscriptions. So, inscriptions are the most valuable, reliable, authentic and direct sources for writing history. They were written in various languages like Pali, Prakriti, Sanskrit, Tamil, old Kannada etc. Ashoka’s Ilatigumpha cave inscriptions at Kharvela (Orissa) are regarded as one of the earliest. The Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta, Aiholc inscription of Pulikeshi-II etc., gives details regarding their expeditions. Thus, inscriptions throw light on a variety of matters of history and culture of ancient India.
Coins (Numismatics): Coins help us to understand the age, dynasty, economic and religious conditions, script, languages, extent of the Empire etc. Coins were usually minted in gold, silver, copper, lead etc. The coins of Guptas, Shatavahanas, Yadavas, Vijayanagara etc., are noteworthy.
Monuments: Monuments are structures or sites of historical importance. They are the materials actually made and used by the people from the earlier era. Forts, palace: caves, temples, statues, stupas, mosques, tombs, churches, basadies etc., are examples of monuments. The cave paintings of Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta, Khajuraho, Badami, the temples at Konark, Belur, IHalebeedu, Tanjavur and Hampi, the statues of Gomateshwara and Buddha etc., help us to understand the cultural heritage of India. They are the true signs of the prosperity of that period and speak volumes of the artistic taste of the people and Rulers of that time.
Paintings: The paintings of various periods give us a very vivid picture of the cultural, social and religious aspects of those bygone eras. For example, among the paintings at the Ajanta caves there is a picture of Pulikeshi-II receiving the Ambassador of Khusro-II.
We find the importance of the archaeological sources in reconstructing the history of lndia. A critical analysis of these sources will enable us to write an authentic history in a very scientific way.