Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 8 Social Change in India
You can Download Chapter 8 Social Change in India Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
2nd PUC Sociology Social Change in India One Mark Questions and Answers
Who introduced the concept of Sanskritization?
Who is the author of the book “Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India”?
What is Sanskritization?
“The tendency among the low castes to move higher in the caste hierarchy in a generation or two by adopting vegetarianism and teetotalism and by sanskritizing its rituals.
Who wrote Modernization of Indian Tradition?
Who wrote the book “Social Change in Modern India”?
Who introduced the concept of Westernization?
Who introduced the term ‘Modernization’?
Mention any one factor facilitating globalisation.
Information and commination Technology.
Who introduced the term Globalization?
Mention any one political factors led to globalization.
The collapse of soviet-style communism.
International Governmental Organization..
International Non-Governmental Organization.
Mention any one IGOS.
World Health Organization (WHO)
Mention any one INGOS.
Who is Truly a Global citizen?
Write the work of Anthony Geddins.
Mention any two multinational companies.
Pepsi and Coca Cola.
Who coined the concept Glocalization?
2nd PUC Sociology Social Change in India Two Marks Questions and Answers
The term is associated with positive and desirable values. According to Daniel Learner Modernization is the process of social change whereby less developed societies acquire the characteristics of common to developed societies.
Globalization refers to the fact that we all increasingly live in one world so that individuals, groups and nations become interdependent.
Mention any two areas of Westernization.
- New Institution
- Ideology and Value
Mention any two characteristics of Modernization.
Education and communication.
List out the endogenous and exogenous changes.
Endogenous changes in the cultural tradition were mainly confined to Sanskritization,
Westernization. Modernization and Globalization are exogenous sources of change.
Mention any two factors contributing to globalization.
- The rise of information and communications technology
- Information flows
Mention any two INGOS.
Green Peace – Medicines san Frontiers.
Mention any two works of MN. Srinivas.
- The Religion and society among the Coorgs of South India.
- Social change in modem India.
State the two dimensions of globalization.
- A Global community
- Transnational Identity.
What is the electronic economy?
The ‘electronic economy’ is another factor ‘that underpins economic globalization. Banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors are able to shift funds internationally with the click of a mouse.
What is transnational Identity?
People are forging their identities through communication network, across boundaries, many scholars have pointed out this as transnational identity.
What is a multi-National company?
Transnational corporations are companies that produce goods or market services in more than one country. For example Coca-Cola., Pepsi, Johnson and Johnson, Ford, General Motors, Colgate Palmolive, and many others.
What is Westernization?
“The changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, and the term subsumes changes occurring at different levels; technology, institutions, ideology, values”.
2nd PUC Sociology Social Change in India Five Marks Questions and Answers
Explain in brief the causes of Modernization.
According to Myron Weiner, the causes for modernization are:
(1) Education: It includes a sense of national loyalty and creates skills and attitudes essential for technological innovation.
(2) Communication: The development of mass communications (including telephone, TV, radio, movies, etc.) is an important means of spreading modem ideas at a faster rate.
(3) Ideology Based on Nationalism: The nationalistic ideologies serve as unifying influence in bridging social cleavages within plural societies. They also help the political elite in changing the behavior of masses of people.
(4) Charismatic Leadership: A charismatic leader is in a better position to persuade people to adopt modem beliefs, practices and behavior patterns because of the respect and loyalty he commands.
(5) Coercive Government Authority: If the government authority is weak, it may not ‘succeed in implementing the policies aimed at the modernization process, but if the government in strong, it may even adopt coercive measures to compel people to accept attitudes and behavior patterns which aim at development.
Explain the process of Modernization in India.
modernization in India is undergoing the following processes:
(1) At the economic level, there is a persistent and growing tendency to adopt the rational, mechanized industrial economy in place of older communal – familistic tool economy. This is even responsible for the breakdown of traditional systems like jajmani system.
(2) At the political level, the change in the power structure is being introduced through the abolition of semi-feudal group-oriented power structure of the past and by replacing it by a rational parliamentary democratic structure of power.
(3) At the cultural level, the change in the realm of values is from sacred value system to secular value system.
(4) At the social level, there is a decline in the traditional principle of ascribed status and role to achieve status and role. Yogendra Singh in his work “Modernization of Indian Tradition” is of the opinion that a unique feature of modernization in India is that it is being carried forward through adaptive changes in the traditional structures rather than structural dissociation or breakdown
Explain the factors of Sanskritization.
(i) Ritual: In spite of the Theoretical existence of certain restrictions, the low castes or other groups did manage to imitate the customs and rites of “Twice-born” (DWIJAS) castes. This is the best Wav of claiming higher position in the caste hierarchy.
(ii) Marriage: According to a strict rule of Brahminism, a Brahmin should give his daughter in marriage before she attains puberty. Pre-puberty marriages were commonly practiced. It was foremost duty of a Brahmin father to give his daughter in marriage before she attains puberty, otherwise, he would be committing a great sin. And marriage among the Brahmin was Indissoluble.
On the other hand, among the low Hindu castes post-puberty marriages were very common and the dissolution of marriage was possible. Now in order to rise up in the caste Hierarchy the low Hindu castes started practicing prepuberty marriages and marriage also become Indissoluble.
(iii) Treatment of Widows: A Brahmin widow for instance was not allowed to re-marry, and receives miserable treatment. She required to shave her head and should not allow wearing any ornaments. She was regarded inauspicious, and not allowed to attend any important functions. On the other hand, among the low castes marriage is dissoluble and widow re-marriages are practiced. Widows are not required to shave their heads. The codes which regulate sexual behavior are not as strict as those among the higher castes. In the imitation process these groups, they banned widow-remarriage, and started treating the widow in the same way on that of the ‘High’ Hindu castes.
(iv) Treatment of Women: Comparatively, women among the high Hindu castes receive bad treatment and hold the secondary position. Virginity in brides and chastity in wives is preferred. A wife is expected to treat her husband as the God. Women perform a number of “Vratas” or Religious vows with the aim of succeeding long life for the Husband. Hence they are not allowed to attend important functions. Whereas women among the lower castes generally receive good treatment and occupy good position. In order to imitate the higher castes, they started treating women in a bad manner and gave them the secondary position.
(v) Kinship: According to M.N. Srinivas, “In the sphere of kinship, Sanskritization stresses the importance in the patrilineal lineage, Sanskritization results in increasing the importance of sons. The members of higher castes prefer sons to daughters, whereas among the lower castes both boys and girls are preferred. For instance, among Non-Brahmin though son is preferred, a daughter is also demanded. The treatment that receives is not as harsh as that of Brahmins. Nowadays lower castes prefer sons to daughters.
(vi) Ideology: Sanskritization also resulting in the use of New Ideas and values which have been frequently expressed in Sanskrit literature. The ideas and values such as Karma, Dharma, Papa, Punya, Maya, Samskara, Moksha etc. The Twice-born castes use these ideas in their conversation. Through the process of Sanskritization lower caste groups were exposed to these ideas and values which are frequent in their conversation.
(vii) Food Habits: Brahmins in India are by and large strict vegetarian except Kashmiri, Sarhwath and Bengali Brahmin. The lower castes usually are Non-vegetarian. Sanskritization results in the change of food habits in the direction of high, frequently twice-born caste. Some of the lower castes become strict vegetarian and practice teetotalism in order to raise the caste hierarchy.
(viii) Dress Habits: It has already pointed out that Dwijas, as they are entitled to wear the sacred thread “JANIVAR” at the vedic rite of upanayana while Shudras do not. Some low castes wear the sacred thread and also imitated their dress style such as wearing dhoti, shalya, turban, kachche, panche, and so on.
(ix) Nomenclature: Many of the low castes started giving names to New bom members of the Higher castes. For example in the place of traditional and typical names such as Kariya, Kempa, Kempi, Kala, Honni, Thimmi, etc., they started giving names such Rama, Krishna, Shankara, Madhava, Gowri, Parvathi, Lakshmi, Shobha, Radha and so on.
2nd PUC Sociology Social Change in India Ten Marks Questions and Answers
Define Globalization and explain its contributing factors.
Globalization refers to the growing interdependence of societies across the world, with the spread of the same culture and economic interests across the globe. For example media and consumer products are often produced for a world market, by the same firms running business all over the world.
Factors Contributing to Globalization: Anthony Giddens has explained the following factors contributing to Globalization
(1) The Rise of Information and Communications Technology: The explosion in global and the world’s telecommunications infrastructure. The spread of communications satellites has also been significant in expanding international communications. Today a network of more than 200 satellites are in space to facilitate the transfer of information around the globe.
The use of satellites, Internet, Telephones, Computer Networking, known as information and communication technologies – ITC – have revolutionized the way the world communicates. You could be chatting online, through the internet, with your friend or family, who is thousands of miles away, and feel that you share your everyday travails much more than a person who is closer home like your neighbour. You could be working in India for company that is located in the United States of America through telecommunication technologies.
(2) Information Flows: It has also facilitated the flow of information about people and events in distant places. Every day, the global media bring news, images and information into homes, linking them directly and continuously to the outside world. Some of the most gripping events of the past two decades – such as the fall of the Berlin Wall, the violent crackdown on democratic protesters in China’s Tiananmen Square and the Terrorist attacks on Bombay in 11 September 2001, Spring movement in Arabian countries, have unfolded through the media before, global audience.
Such events, along with thousands of information, have resulted in a reorientation in people’s thinking from the level of the nation-state to the global stage. In the case of natural disasters, such interventions take the form of humanitarian relief and technical assistance. In recent years, earthquakes in Armenia and Turkey, floods in Mozambique and Bangladesh, famine in Africa and hurricanes in Central America have been rallying points for global assistance.
(3) Knowledge Society: The emergence of the knowledge society has been linked to the development of a broad base of consumers who are technologically literate and eagerly integrate new advances in computing, entertainment and Telecommunications into their everyday lives. The very operation of the global economy reflects the changes that have occurred in the information age. Many aspects of the economy now work through networks that cross national boundaries, rather than stopping at them.
(4) Transnational Corporations: In globalization the role of transnational corporations is particularly important. Transnational corporations are companies that produce goods or market services in more than one country. For example Coca-Cola., Pepsi, Johnson and Johnson, Ford, General Motors, Colgate-Palmolive, and many others. Indian corporations like Reliance, TATAs, Birla Groups, Infosys, Mahindras, TVS group, Wipro and etc. Even when trans-national corporations have a clear national base, they are oriented towards global markets and global profits. Transnational corporations are at the heart of economic globalization.
(5) The Electronic Economy: Globalization is also being driven forward by the integration of the world economy. In contrast to previous eras, the global economy is no longer primarily agricultural or industrial in its basis. Rather, it is increasingly dominated by activity that is weightless and intangible. This weightless economy is one in which products have their base in information, as is the case with computer software, media and i entertainment products and Internet-based services.
The ‘electronic economy’ is another factor ‘that underpins economic. globalization, Banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors are able to shift funds internationally with the click of a mouse. As the global economy becomes increasingly integrated, a financial collapse in one part of the world can have an enormous effect on distant economies.
(6) Political Changes: Another driving force behind contemporary globalization is related to political change. These are:
(1) The collapse of Soviet-style communism in 1991. The collapse of communism has hastened processes of globalization but should also be seen as a result of globalization. itself.
(2) The important political factor leading to intensifying globalization is the Growth of International and Regional Mechanisms of Government namely The United Nations ’ and the European Union, SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation), BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are the two most prominent examples of international organizations that bring together nation-states into a common political forum. Finally, globalization is being driven by International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) and International Nongovernmental.
Organizations (INGOs). An IGO is a body that is established by Participating governments and given responsibility for regulating or overseeing a particular domain of activity that is transnational in scope. The first such body, The International Telegraph ’ Union, was founded in 1865. Since that time, a great number of similar bodies have been created. In 1909, there were only 37 IGOs in existence to regulate transnational affairs; by 1996, there were 260.
Some of the best-known INGOs – such as Greenpeace, Medicines Sans Frontiers (Doctors Without Borders), the Red Cross and Amnesty International-are involved in environmental protection and humanitarian efforts. But the activities of thousands of lesser-known groups, also link together countries and communities.
Explain Westernization and its major aspects.
M. N. Srinivas, in his book “Social Change in Modern India” explains Westernization in these, words, “The changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, and the term subsumes changes occurring at different levels; technology, institutions, ideology, values”. The process of westernization brought about a number of socio-cultural changes in the Indian Society among which the following may be noted in three main areas:
Technology, Institutions, Ideology and values.
(i) Technology: The New and large scale industries introduced by the British exposed Indian to the influence of Western Technology. Widespread use of the western technology led to the process of industrialization. The process of industrialization is normally associated with the growth of towns and cities which started attracting people from the rural areas.
The cities provided a favorable atmosphere for the spread of western influence. Technology led to the development in the fields of Communication, Post and Telegraph, Telephone and Radio, Railways, Roadways and etc., Radical progress in the field of Transport and Communication added greater to the spread of western way of life.
(ii) New Institution: Westernization brought about changes in institutional system also. For example (a) In the place of Traditional Educational Institution the western type of formal; educational Institutions such as Schools, Colleges, Technical Institutes, Research Centres, Universities etc., got established. English became the medium of language in these institutions and gained prominence.
It also served to spread English culture, (b) In the place of Traditional caste panchayats the modem law, legislation, court, police and other legal system came to stay, (c) The modem capitalist mode of Economy gave a fatal blow to the Existing Jajmani System. New commercial Establishments, banks, and New accounting system came to be established, (d) New institutional arrangements such as social welfare schemes, life insurance schemes, social security schemes etc., in order to provide protection and security to people where ever required.
(iii) Ideology and Value: Westernization implies certain value preferences also. Humanitarianism, Rationalism, Egalitarianism and Secularism are associated with westernization. These ideologies and values had a great impact on Indians They changed the traditional attitudes and outlook of the people. Western ideologies and values provided inspiration for social reform movement, such as Brahma Samaja, Arya Samja, Ramakrishna Mission and so on.
Consider Barbie doll as a Global Citizen.
One Illustration of the global commodity chain can be found in the manufacture of the Barbie Doll. The most profitable Toy in history. Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy-company Mattel corporation and launched in March 1959. The doll sells at the rate of two per second, bringing the metal corporation based in Los Angeles, U.S.A., well over a billion dollars in annual revenues. American businesswoman Ruth Handler. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for over fifty years, often involving parody of the doll and her lifestyle.
Although Barbie sells mainly in the United States, Europe and Japan, Barbie can also be found in 140 countries around the world. She is a truly Global citizen. Barbie was never made in the United States. The first doll was made in Japan in 1959, when that country was still recovering from Second World War and wages were low. As wages rose in Japan, Barbie moved to other low-wage countries in Asia.
Barbie’s multiple origins today tell us a great deal about the operation of global commodity chains. Barbie is designed in the United States, where her marketing and advertising strategies are devised and where most of the profits are made. But the only physical aspect of Barbie that is made in the USA is her cardboard packaging, along with some of the paints and oils that are used to decorate the doll. Barbie’s body and wardrobe span the globe in their origins,
Barbie begins her life in Saudi Arabia, where oil is extracted and then refined into the ethylene that is used to create her plastic body. Taiwan’s state owned oil importer, the Chinese Petroleum Corporation buys the Ethylene and sells it to Taiwan’s Formosa Plastic Corporation, the world’s largest producer of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). The pellets are then shipped to southern China, Indonesia and Malaysia. The plastic molded body of Barbie are made in the U.S.A. Once Barbie’s body is molded she gets her Nylon hair from Japan, her Cotton dresses are made in China and shipped into Hong Kong.
According to Anthony Giddens “What Barbie production and consumption shows is the effectiveness of globalization processes in connecting together the world’s economics; However it also demonstrates the unevenness of globalization’s impact, which enables some countries to benefit at the expances of others. This means that we cannot assume that global commodity chains will inevitably promote development right accross the chains of societies involved”.
Explain two dimension of global outlook.
According to Anthony Giddens global outlook has two dimensions:
1. A global community: People increasingly perceive that social responsibility does not stop at national borders”. One can see this global participation, in the case of recent disasters such as the Tsunami which hit India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia or similar such disasters. People express their responsibility and concern through voluntary work, donations, relief work etc. This can also be seen in people’s participation, though campaigns which concern larger human issues it is human rights or ecology and environmental concerns or political issues.
2. Transnational Identity: People are forging their identities through communication network, across boundaries, many scholars have pointed out this as transnational identity.
Homogenisation and Hybridisation of Culture: Avery significant feature of globalisation is the flow of several things; technology, money, people and culture, which is highly mediated by global technology and media. So we have Bollywood influencing fashion in England, as much as MTV and other American programs influencing not only the Indians but world at large.
This confluence has raised questions such as; whether the world is getting homogenised by Western influences, especially America. However, the emergence of a single ‘world culture’ is highly unlikely. ‘Instead, globalization and the associated cultural interpenetration are more likely to lead to new permutations and combinations, new options, and new cultures’. With increasing pace of globalization, the idea of global citizenship’ would gain support.
But it would not pose a threat to the existing loyalties and identities – local, national, regional. It would neither supersede existing loyalties nor represent the creation of a global culture. But ‘It would be a step towards recognition of the fact that globalisation affects everyone and we should all have a voice in determining how the effects are managed’.
Yogendra Singh recognizes that globalisation was bound to put pressure on the Indian culture. He envisages some degree of acceleration towards homogenising of cultural forms and activities (lifestyle, dress, food etc) in the country. However, he asserts that ‘the social structure and cultural system in India are intrinsically based on pluralism and diversity’. The Indian society is segmented in communities which enjoy ‘enormous cultural autonomy’.
This provides enormous cultural resilience to communities in India to filter the effects of globalisation through refractory and prismatic adaptations’. Moreover, there is observed an enhanced sense of self-consciousness and awareness of identity. Those elements of globalisation are resented they encroach upon or does not promote the core cultural values of society. So, globalization has both facets – Homogenisation and (cultural) Identity enhancement.
In case of the Indian diaspora (Non – Resident Indians), he finds the trends of cultural fusion. Also in India, at the level of the popular culture of music, dance, dramatic, cinema etc., the new trend is one of fusion of traditional Indian styles and westem/global styles. This emergent popular (fusion) culture, as posing ‘a threat to the indigenous local, regional or ethnic identity of cultural traditions.