Advent of Europeans to India 10th Notes KSEEB Social Science
→ Trade and commerce relationship existed between India and Europe since ancient times.
→ Arab merchants carried Asian merchandise into Constantinople of Eastern Roman (Byzantium) Empire.
→ Constantinople was the centre of European business and was known as the ‘Gate of European Trade’
→ Italian traders had monopolized trade in Europe and Arab merchants in Asian countries.
→ The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in the year 1453 and the trade routes through Corstantinop1e came under their control.
→ Spain and Portugal attempted to break the monopoly of Italian traders.
→ The Invention of Compass, Astrolabes and Gunpowder provided impetus to find a sea route to India.
→ Vasco-da-Gama, a Portuguese sailor was successful in discovering a new sea route to India in 1498.
→ The Portuguese were the first to re-establish trade between India and Europe.
→ The Suez Canal was built in Egypt to connect the Red sea and Mediterranean sea in 1869.
→ The distance between Mumbai and London through Cape of Good Hope is 10,800 nautical miles.
→ 01 nautical mile = 1.85 kms
→ The distance between Mumbai and London through the Suez Canal is only 6,200 .nautical miles.
→ Francisco-de-Almeida was the first Viceroy of the Portuguese.
→ Almeida introduced the ‘Blue Water Policy’ to establish the supremacy of the Portuguese over the sea.
→ Alfonso de Albuquerque, the next viceroy of the Portuguese succeed in establishing the Portuguese Empire in India.
→ Albuquerque defeated the Sultan of Bijapur in 1510 and captured Goa.
→ The Dutch established United East India company in 1602 to establish trade ties with eastern countries.
→ The Dutch established warehouses at Surat, Broach, Kambe, Kochin, Nagapatanim, Masulipatanam and Chinsor.
→ The English East India Company formally started in 1613.
→ The Mughal emperor Jahangir permitted the English to establish their first warehouse and factory at Surat.
→ Sir Thomas Roe, the royal ambassador from the court of James. I came to India and sought permission from emperor Jahangir to establish factories in the Mughal Empire.
→ The English seized Madras from the King of Chandragiri and built the St. George Fort.
→ Prince Charles II of England, gave Bombay to the British East India Company for an annual rent of 10 pounds.
→ The English bought Sutanauti, Kalikata and Gorindapura on the banks of the Hugli River and built Fort William.
→ The French Government established the French East India Company in 1664.
→ The ambitions of the French Governor-General to establish the French power led to the Carnatic wars.
→ The French East India Company started its first factory in Surat in 1668.
→ The French took over Valikandapuram from a local Muslim official in 1674, and developed it into a major trade center.
→ By 18th C, the Portugeuse and Dutch had withdrawn from India unable to compete against the French and English companies.
→ The political volatility in Hyderabad and Carnatic region was exploited by the ambitions French and English, which led to three camatic wars.
→ Asaf Jha had established the kingdom of Hyderabad in 1724.
→ The First Carnatic war was fought between the French and the British between 1746-48.
→ The First Carnatic was ended with a treaty in Europe between the defeated French and the victorious English, called the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle’.
→ The Nizam of Hyderabad, Asaf Jha died in 1748.
→ Salabath Jung, a son of Asaf Jha, became the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1749, after eliminating his rivals for the throne, with the help of the French army.
→ The Second Carnatic war was fought between the English under Robert Clive and the Nawab of Carnatic, Chandasaheb between 1749-1754 CE.
→ During the Second Carnatic war, Chandasaheb was killed and the English made Muhammad Ali, the son of Anwaruddin, as the Nawab of Carnatic,
→ The Second Carnatic war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry.
→ The Third Carnatic war was fought between the French, under Comte-de-Lally and the English, under Sir Egre Coote between 1756-1763 CE.
→ In the third Carnatic war the English defeated the French and captured Pondicherry.
→ Under the ‘Treaty of Paris’ in 1763, between the English and the Fench, Pondicherry was returned to the French.
→ After the Third Carnatic war the English consolidated their power over southern India.
→ Dupleix become the Governor-General of French regions in India in 1742.
→ The Dastakths or licenses issued by the Mughal ruler of Bengal Faruk Shiar, helped the English to gain tremendous growth in agriculture, commerce and industry, in the province of Bengal
→ Aliwardi Khan, the Nawab of Bengal, died in 1756.
→ The grandson of Aliwardi Khan, Siraj-ud-Daula, became the Nawab of Bengal in 1756.
→ The Battle of Plassey took place between Siraj-ud-dawla, the Nawab of Bengal and the English in 1757.
→ The Causes of the Battle of Plassey were :
- Misuse of Dastakaths (licences) by the English.
- Mending of the Fort of Calcutta (Fort William) without the Nawab’s permission
- The ‘Black Room Tragedy’ in which Siraj-ud-dawla conqured Fort William and imprisioned 146 English soldiers in a small room at the fort and 123 soldiers died.
→ Siraj-ud-dawla was killed in the Battle of Plassey because his military, commander, Mir Jaffar sided the British and remained neutral.
→ Mir Jaffar was dethroned as the Nawab of Bengal and his nephew Mir Kasim, was made the Nawab.
→ Mir Jaffar declared that the business is duty free in Bengal.
→ Mir Kasim was dethroned and Mir Jaffar was again made the Nawab of Bengal.
→ The Battle of Buxar took place in 1764 between the combined forces of Mir Kasim, Sha-Alam-I and Nawab of Awadh and the British army led by Hector Munro.
→ The English defeated the combined army of Mir Kasim.
→ In 1765, Robert Clive, brought in ‘Dual Government Concept’ which the British had the right to collect taxes and the Nawab had only administrative and judicial powers.
→ ADVENT: Arrival
→ CARNATIC: Eastern part of India
→ SPICE: A strong tasting vegetable substance used to flavour food.
Ex: pepper, cardamom, ginger etc.,
→ CONSTANTINOPLE: The ancient city of Constantinople is now known as Istanbul, the capital city of Turkey. It was the capital of the Byzantine , empire the largest city and seaport of Turkey.
→ BYZANTIUM: Eastern Roman empire (Turkey)
→ OTTOMAN TURKS: The Turkish speaking people of the Ottoman empire.
→ SPAIN: An European country
→ PORTUGAL: An European country
→ ASTROLABE: A very ancient astronomical computer for solving problems relating to time and position of the sun and stars in the sky.
→ IMPETUS: Something that encourages a particular activity or makes that activity more energetic.
→ VENTURE: A risky or daring journey.
→ LISBON: The capital city of Portugal
→ KAPPADU: A sub-urban town of Kanjirappally in Kerala’s, Kottayam district
→ CALICUT: Now known as Kozhikode in Kerala.
→ PORTUGUESE: The people of Portugal.
→ SUEZ CANAL: An artificial sea- level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean sea to the Red sea through the Isthmus of Suez which reduced the distance and travel-time from the west of Africa.
→ CAPE OF GOOD HOPE: The southern most tip of the continent of Africa.
→ VASCO-DA-GAMA: The first European to reach Indian by sea.
→ NAUTICAL MILE: Based on the circumference of the earth and is equal to me minute of latitude, used for charting and navigating at sea.
→ FRACISCO-DE-ALMEIDA: First Viceroy and the founder of the Portuguese empire in India.
→ DUTCH: The people of Holland and Netherlands.
→ WAREHOUSE: A place for storing merchandise.
→ MERCHANDISE: Goods for sale.
→ UNITED EAST INDIA COMPANY: A company established by the Dutch with aim of doing business with eastern countries.
→ ROYAL CHARTER: A document granted by a ruler or Government.
→ SIR THOMAS ROE: Royal ambassador from the court of English king James I to the court of Mughal emperor Jahangir.
→ St.GEORGE FORT: A strong fort built in Madras by the British
→ POUNDS: British currency
→ FORT WILLIAM: A fort built by the British in Kolkata on the banks of river Hoogli.
→ CULCATTA: The first capital city of the British empire in India.
→ DUPLE IX: The first governor general of the French empire in India in 1742.
→ VOLATILITY: Liable to changes rapidly and unpredictability.
→ CARNATIC: Eastern part of Tamil Nadu.
→ ASAF JHA: The founder of Hyderabad kingdom in 1724.
→ LABOURDONNAIS: A French military leader from Mauritius who invaded Madras in 1746 and captured it.
→ TREATY OF AIX-LA-CHAPELLE: A treaty signed by France and England in Europe to end the First Carnatic war (1746-48)
→ ROBERT CLIVE: A clerk in the East India Company, who rose power and played a decisive role in Carnatic wars and was successful in establishing the British rule over South India.
→ DASTAKATH: A license issued by the’ Mughal ruler Faruk Shiara, that ensured any one to import and export without paying any tax and transport goods anywhere.
→ BLACK ROOM TRAGEDY: Siraj- Ud-Daula, the Nawab of Bengal captured Fort William and imprisoned 146 Englishment in small room in the fort of which 123 died. This is called Black Room Tragedy.
→ BANKRUPT: Declared in law as unable to pay their debts.
→ NUTSHELL: Very brief, in a few words
→ DEWANI RIGHTS: The right to collect land taxes.
→ ‘DUAL-GOVERNMENT CONCEPT’: A concept introduced by Robert Clive in 1765, after the Battle of Buxar in Bihar, Bengal, Odisha and Awadh. According to it the British had the right to collect land taxes, and the Nawab had administrative judicial powers.
→ ‘GATE OF EUROPEAN TRADE’: Constantinople was known as the ‘Gate of European Trade’, because it was the Center of International Business.
→ 1453: Ottoman Truks captured the city of Constantinople, 20 May, 1498 : Vasco-do-Gama’s First voyage from Europe to India.
→ 1510: Alfanso de Albuquerque, won Goa, after defeating the Sultan of Bijapur.
→ 31 Dec 1600: Queen Elizabeth issued a royal charter authorizing East India Company to trade with Eastern Countries for fifteen years. East India company was established.
→ 1602: The Dutch established United East India Company in Netherlands.
→ 1613: East India Company formally started business.
→ 1617: Sir Thomas Roe, the royal ambassador from the court of king James of England arrived at the court of Mughal emperor Jahangir.
→ 1619: The Mughal emperor issued royal center to allow British to trade in Surat.
→ 1639: The English took over Madras from the king of Chandragiri and built and strong fort named St. George Fort.
→ 1664: The French government started the French East India Company.
→ 1668: Charles II, the Prince of England, gave Bombay to the East India Company for an annual rent of ten pounds.
→ 1674: The French developed a major trade center at Valikandapuram, after taking it over from a local Muslim official.
→ 1690: The English built Fort William on the banks of the River Hoogli after purchasing three villages named Sutanauti, Kalikata and Govindrapura.
→ 1724: Asaf Jha established the kingdom of Hyderabad.
→ 1740: The Marathas annexed Carnatic region from Dost Aoli, and Anwaruddin became the Nawab of Carnatic.
1742: Dupleix became the Governor General of French regions in India.
→ 1748: a) The French and the English signed a treaty in Europe called the ‘Treaty of Aix – La- Chapelle, which ended the First Carnatic War.
b) Death of Asaf Jha, the Nizam of Hyderabad.
→ 1749: a) The combined Forces of French, Chandasaheb, the Son-in-Law of Dost Ali and Mujaffar Jung of Hyderabad, defeated Anwaruddin, the Nawab of Carnatic and killed him in Ambur battle
b) Chanda Saheb became the ruler of Carnatic
→ 1749-1754: Second Carnatic War
→ 1754: Treaty of Pondicherry
→ 1751: Battle of Plassey, between the Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-Daula and the English
→ 1756-1763: Third Carnatic War.
→ 1760: Battle of Wandiwash, the British defeated the French
→ 1761: The English, under Sir Eyre Coote conquered Pondicherry
→ 1763: Treaty of Pondicherry – between the French and the English
→ 1764: Battle of Buxar
→ 1765: Robert clive implemented the ‘Dual-government’ concept
→ 1869: The Suez Canal was inaugurated.