Indian Climate 10th Notes KSEEB Social Science
→ The climate of India can be described as “Tropical Monsoon” climate.
→ The word “Monsoon” is derived from an Arabic word “mausim” which means ‘seasons’.
→ The climate of India can be divided into four seasons
- Winter Season (December to February)
- The Summer Season (March to May)
- The Rainy Season (June to Mid September)
- The Retreating Monsoon Season (Mid September of November)
→ Dras near Kargil has received the lowest temperature of -4°C in India.
→ The highest recorded temperature is 49.4°C at Ganganagar in Rajasthan.
→ Convectional rains are known as:
- ‘Andhis’ in Uttar Pradesh
- ‘Kalabaisakhis’ in West Bengal
- ‘Mango Showers’ in Kerala
- ‘Coffee Blossom’ in Karnataka
→ India receives rains by the South West Monsoon winds.
→ The South West Monsoon winds occur due to high pressure over the Indian Ocean and low pressure in Central India, bringing moisture from the Indian Ocean.
→ The two branches of South West Monsoon winds are :
- Arabian Sea Branch
- Bay of Bengal Branch.
→ ‘Mawsynram’ in Meghalaya receives the heaviest rainfall in India.
→ The retreating monsoon occurs in October due to high pressure over the Indian land mass and low pressure over the Bay of Bengal.
→ The retreating monsoon season is known as “North East Monsoon Season”
→ Tropical cyclones occur in the Bay of Bengal.
→ On the basis of the amount of rainfall in India, the distribution of rainfall can be divided into 3 broad zones:
a. Areas with low rainfall (less than 50cm): Western Kutch, Thar Desert etc.
b. Areas with medium rainfall (50-100cm): North Punjab to Cape of Kanyakumari.
c. Areas with heavy rainfall (100-250cm): The narrow belt of the Western Ghats, Jammu Hills, North UP, Bihar, West Bengal, North East India and West Coast.
d. Ruyly in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan receives the least rainfall of 5.3cm.
→ MONSOON: is derived from the Arabic word “Mausim” which means seasons.
→ RAIN SHADOW AREA: An area having relatively little rain due to topographical barriers such as a mountain range.
→ TROPICAL CYCLONES: is an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans.