Indian Transport and Communication 10th Notes KSEEB Social Science
→ ‘Transport’ means movement of organism, transport and goods, service and passengers from communication are the nerves one place to another.
→ If agriculture and industries are the body and bones of the national organism, transport and communication are the nerves
→ The modes of transport are
→ Roads are the most ancient and universal means of transport
→ On the basis of construction and maintenance roads are classified into Five types: They are:
- Golden Quadrilateral and Super Highways.
- National Highways.
- State Highways.
- District Roads
- Village Roads.
→ The golden quadrilateral road project started in 1999, with 4 to 6 lane roads connecting major cities Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Vishakapatnam, Kolkata and Delhi.
→ The construction and maintenance of roads and highways in India is controlled by National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)
→ National Highways connect state capitals and national highways and are under Central Public Works Department(CPWD)
→ District roads connect district headquarters with state capital and are under jilia panchayat
→ Village roads link villages, towns and market centres.
→ Roads in border areas mostly used by defence forces are ‘Border Roads’ and are maintained by Border Road Development Authority (BRDA)
→ The first railway line was laid between Mumbai and Thane in 1853
→ The railways are the largest public sector undertaking in India.
→ The total length of railways in India is 64,015 kms
→ Pipelines are the latest mode of land transport for the transport of crude oil from oil field to refineries, natural gas and mineral slarry
→ Water ways are divided into
- Inland water ways
- Ocean water ways.
→ Ports are meeting points of land and sea where ships are docked for loading and unloading.
→ The ‘Mumbai Port’ is called the ‘Gateway of India’.
→ The ‘New Mangaluru Port’ at Panambar in Karnataka is called The Gateway of Karnataka’.
→ The ‘Airport Authority of India’ manages Airports.
→ The ‘Kempegowda International Airport’ is in Bengaluru, Karnataka.
→ The conveyance of messages from one person to another or from one place to another is called ‘communication’.
→ Communication can be broadly divided into two categories
- Personal communication
- Mass communication.
→ Mass communication includes postal service, telecommunication, radio and television, newspaper, satellites and computer networks.
→ Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer-based system which can accumulate data of the earth surface through the internet.
→ Global Positioning System (GPS) indicates the location of stationary or moving object or person through pointing out the longitude and height above sea level.
→ Remote Sensing Technology collects informations regarding earth’s surface and photographs.
→ PRIME MINISTER’S Gram SADAK YOJANA: A programme undertaking by the Government to asphalt all roads in all villages of India.
→ METALLED ROADS: Tarred Roads
→ BOMBAY SAMACHAR: The oldest and still existing newspaper in India started in 1922.
→ GATE WAY OF INDIA: Mumbai Sea Port
→ GATE WAY OF KARNATAKA: New Mangalore Sea port
→ QUEEN OF ARABIAN SEA: Kochi in Kerala.
→ VISHAKAPATNAM SEA PORT: Natural harbour of India
→ NATIONAL HIGHWAY No.7: Longest highway in India
→ THE MANALI – LEH ROAD: Highest road in India.
→ 1853: The first railway line laid between Mumbai and Thane in India
→ 1854: Kolkata to Raniganj railway line
→ 1864: Chennai to Arkonam railway line
→ 1999: Start of Golden quadrilateral and super highways
→ 1962: The first publication of newspaper ‘Bombay Samachar’
→ 1936: All India Radio established.
1959: To broadcasting started in India