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Karnataka State Syllabus Class 7 Social Science Geography Chapter 26 Antarctica – The White Continent
Class 7 Social Science Antarctica – The White Continent Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions:
Mention the location and extent of Antarctica.
Location: Antarctica is the continent that surrounds the south pole. Most of the continents lie within the Antarctic circle or 66°.30 south latitude. A unique position of the continent is that it is opposite to the Arctic ocean ground the north pole. Extent: the Antarctic is the fifth-largest continent. Its total area is 14.2 million km. It is larger than China and India.
Explain the physical setting of Antarctica.
The continents of Antarctica is surrounded by a water body. It is often called the southern ocean or Antarctic ocean. But it is not a separate ocean. Cape Horn, the southern extreme and end of South America is the nearest land to this continent. It lies at a distance of 990 km. Antarctica is bound by the Indian Ocean in the east, the pacific ocean in the west, and the Atlantic ocean on the north coast.
Antarctica is known as the ‘White Continent’, why?
Antarctica is covered by ice and snow.’ Therefore most of the relief features of the continent are covered by ice sheets. High mountain peaks and a few plateaus are the only visible land surfaces. The ice layer which approximately 2300 meters thick makes it look white. Therefore Antarctica is called ‘the white continent’.
Mention the important mountains and peaks of Antarctica.
- The Trans-Antarctic mountain crosses the entire continent.
- ‘Vinson Massif’ the highest peak in Antarctica is located in the Ellsworth mountains.
- Mt. Erebus, Antarctica’s most active volcano, is on Ross Island.
- Another one is Prince Charles mountain.
Name the plants and animals of Antarctica.
Plants: The climate of the continent is extremely cold and hostile. It has 6 months of sunshine and 6 months of darkness. Very limited plant life can survive here. It mainly consists of moss, lichen, and algae, living on and between the rocks. Animals: Only very few animals which can cope with adverse climate live here. But there is a variety of animal life in the surrounding water bodies. Krill, Penguins, Whales, Seal, and a variety of Sea birds live here.
Mention the research centers of India in Antarctica.
- ‘Dakshina Gangothri’- It was built in l983. It was buried in 1989 and later excavated and is being used again for storage.
- ‘Maitri’ is the second settlement set up in 1988-89 for experiments in Geology, Geography, and Medicines.
- ‘Bharathi’ is the third proposed settlement and active research station for the study of oceanography.
Class 7 Social Science Antarctica – The White Continent Additional Questions and Answers
I. Match the following:
|1. James Clark Ross of Great Britain||a. discovered the south pole|
|2. Robert F. Scott of Great Britain||b. First to reach the South pole by plane|
|3. Ronald Amundsen||c. sailed into the Ross sea of Norwegia|
|4. Richard. E. Byrd||d. proved the existence of the United states continent of Antarctica|
|5. Charles Wilkies||e. the first person to reach the Head of US navy south pole|
II. Fill in the blanks:
- _______ is the fifth-largest continent.
- East Antarctica is also called _______.
- The central part of the region is a plateau where the _______ is located.
- Continuous hunting has endangered the life of _______.
- _______ is the nest built by Penguins in hollows of rock for their reproduction.
- _______ is a place in Antarctica, near the south pole which has recorded the lowest temperature (-89°c) in the world.
- The Greater Antarctica
- South pole
III. Answer the following questions:
Name the two major physical divisions formed by the Trans-antarctic mountain.
It divides Antarctica into two major physical divisions
- East Antarctica
- West Antarctica
Name the two gulfs that cut into Antarctica.
They are the Ross sea and Weddel sea.
What type of climate does Antarctica have?
The climate of the continent is extremely cold and hostile. It has six months of sunshine and six months of darkness.
What is the ‘Antarctic Treaty’?
This is an agreement between the countries to keep Antarctica as a place just for scientific research.
When and between whom was the Antarctic Treaty signed?
The treaty was signed in Washington D.C on 1st December 1959 by 12 nations and it was enacted on 23rd June 1961.
What are the main objectives of the Antarctic Treaty?
Its main objectives are
- Antarctica is to be used for peaceful purposes only and military operations are not allowed.
- It prohibits nuclear test and disposal of radioactive waste.
- No ownership of land and water is permitted.
- Mineral and oil exploration, environmental pollution, and hunting are banned.
- Explorers must not bring any exotic species.
- The continent is reserved for scientific investigation.
- It is also agreed to preserve and conserve the natural resources of the continent.
When and by whom was the Indian flag unfurled for the first time in Antarctica?
In 1982, by Dr. Quasim.
Name the freshwater lake built around ‘Maitri’ by India.
IV. Multiple choice questions:
1. Antarctica is not called by one of the following names _______
a) Pink continent
b) White continent
c) Snow desert
d) Cold desert
a) Pink continent
2. _______ is the highest continent is terms of average elevation.
b) South America
3. Vinson Massif, the highest peak in Antarctica (5140m) is located in _______ mountains.
b) Prince Charles
4. _______ is not a species of Penguins.
5. _______ proved the existence of the continent of Antarctica.
a) James Clark Ross
b) Robert F.Scott
c) Charles Wilkes
d) Richard E.Byrd
c) Charles Wilkes