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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2019
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
When did India become independent?
India became Independent on August 15th 1947.
Which country is considered as world’s largest democracy?
What is Election?
Election is the process of choosing representatives to public offices.
Who appoints the Election Commissioner of India?
The President of India, on the advice of Union cabinet appoints the Chief Election Commissioner of India.
What is social discrimination?
It is a discrimination like superior or inferior practised against the backward class people who are not allowed into the main stream of the society.
Who is the head of District Administration?
Deputy commissioners / District magistrate.
On which day voters day is celebrated?
How many times National Emergency is imposed in India?
What is privatisation?.
Privatization is the process of transferring ownership of a business, enterprise, agency, public service or public property from the public sector to private sector.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
How many articles and schedules are there in the Act of 1935?
The 1935 act contained 321 articles and 13 schedules.
What is All India Service?
A group of people who are appointed by the union government and working in both union and state government is called All India Service.
Name the varnas that prevailed in the ancient period.
Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vyshya, Shudra.
What is gender based inequality?
When discrimination is made on the basis of gender denying equal opportunities to the fairer sex, it is called gender based inequality.
What is coalition government?
According of F.A.Ogg “Coalition is a system where members of multiple political parties unite to form a government or Ministry”.
What is corruption?
Misuse of power or public office for personal motives is called corruption.
Write any two ethnic groups in Syria.
Arabs and Armanians.
Name any two members of the SAARC.
The two member countries of the SAARC are India and Sri Lanka.
State any two functions of general assembly.
- It receives reports from every organ.
- It elects the members of the other councils.
Write any two principles of Panchasheel.
- Mutual Non-aggeression.
- Peaceful Co-existance.
Name any two military alliances.
NATO and WARSA.
Who were the signatories of Simla agreement?
Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistan Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto.
III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Write a short note on first general election.
became a Sovereign Democratic Republic after the constitution was adopted on 26th January 1950. General elections to the first Lok Sabha were held in India from October 1951 to February 1952, on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise. With this, India emerged as the world’s largest Democracy.
The holding of General elections was a bold implementation of that faith in man and democracy. The first general elections was the most gigantic political experiment in the history of democracy. It was world’s largest free election.
Explain the features of Indirect elections.
Features of Indirect Elections are:
1. Selection of best candidates:
In this method, candidates are elected by intelligent voters. At the first instance General public elect their representatives to the electoral college and at the second instance the elected representatives in turn judiciously elect the final representatives of legislature or head of the nation. This method involves double election. Elected representatives act wisely with political acumen.
2. Prevents unhealthy campaigning:
It avoids all sorts of evils like dirty propaganda tricks and instigation of people lover petty issues to divide them. For example in the election of the President of India the average voters are kept outside but only elected members of both the Houses of the Parliament participate. These intelligent and responsible members keep away from all sorts of party gimmicks.
3. Peaceful voting:
In this method, there is no scope for illegal activities or fights during the election as it happens in the direct election. In the electoral process only small members of enlightened voters peacefully exercise their votes judiciously. The elections are conducted according to well defined norms and values.
4. Little scope for emotions:
Elected representatives are not carried away by passions or sentiments nor can be influenced like an average voter. There is no chance for misusing sensitive issues for political gains. The higher level leaders are elected by people’s representatives who act with a sense of responsibility.
5. Suitable to developing nations:
Since majority of the voters are ignorant, not educated and intelligent, only a small group of politically educated and wise voters elect responsible and public spirited representatives.
Discuss the features of civil service.
Features of Civil Services:
1. Professional body:
As Herman Finer puts it, Civil service is a professional body of officials who are, permanent, paid and skilled. It is a whole time job and career service.
As per the scaler system, each civil servant has to obey his immediate superior, where higher ranking administrative officers with discretionary powers supervises their subordinates. The authority runs from above, and helps to make administration stable.
3. Political Neutrality:
Civil Servants refrain always from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any one political regime.
Civil servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the Government. Recognition for good work or censure for any omission goes only to the concerned minister and not to the civil servants.
The Civil Servants have to apply the laws of the state while performing the duties without showing any favour, bias or preference to any groups or sections of the society.
6. Service motto:
They have to work for the welfare of the society. They must be humble and service minded towards the public and not authoritative.
Civil Servants are called permanent executives. They discharge duties till they attain the age of superannuation. Both at the central and in Karnataka State Services, the age of retirement is sixty years. Even though disciplinary action is taken as per rules, there is security of service.
8. Jurisdiction of Law:
Every Civil Servant has to function within the prescribed jurisdiction of law. If he crosses the limit, he is met with disciplinary action.
9. Special Training:
Once the candidates are selected for top civil services, they are deputed to in-service training to acquire special skills in administration, like the Lai Bahadur Shastry Academy of Administration located in Mussoorie for the training of the newly appointed IAS officers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Academy located in Hyderabad trains the newly appointed IPS officers.
What are the five functions of Deputy Commissioner?
The Deputy Commissioner. (DC) is the head of the District. He also acts as the District Magistrate, Superintendent of police (SP), District Treasury Officer. Deputy Director of Pre University Education, Social Welfare officer, Deputy Director of Public Instruction, District Medical Officer, Deputy Registrar and other functions under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Commissioner.
The Deputy Commissioner performs the following functions.
1. Law and order and Magisterial powers:
Deputy Commissioner enjoys magisterial powers. Being the District Magistrate, he maintains law and order and performs other judicial functions in the district.
2. Revenue functions:
It includes maintenance of Land Records and its assessment, collection of Land Revenue and other public dues and settlement of land disputes. Assistant Commissioners and Tahsildars work under the overall supervision and control of the Deputy Commissioner.
3. Development Functions:
It includes Public Health, Education, Rural Development, Social Welfare (Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe) and Welfare of Backward Classes and Minorities and Protection of Weaker sections of the Society.
4. Regulatory Functions:
It includes control, regulation, and distribution of Food and Civil Supplies and essential commodities. He also controls the matters relating to excise, stamps, and registration.
5. Electoral Functions:
Deputy Commissioner is the District Election Officer and he is in charge of elections to Parliament, State Legislature and Local bodies.
What are the causes for Dalit movement?
Causes for Dalit Movement are as follows:
1. Social injustice:
As per the law of nature, all men are born equal. But in practice, equal treatment and equal opportunities have been denied. Exploitation in society was widespread. To get their legitimate rights and opportunities, dalits rebelled under the leadership of many reformers which took the form of movement against the injustice.
2. Economic inequality:
Dalits worked in the lands of high caste Elindus and were responsible for the wealth of the feudalist upper castes. Inspite of it, they were treated inhumanly and were not given proper share of wealth. Hence, their position was pathetic. Added to the this, they were victims of exploitation, atrocity, harassment, and other heinous Acts. Their opposition was expressed in the form of agitations.
Discrimination was rampant in all walks of life. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar himself was the victim of such discrimination. He dared to enter the Kalaram Temple of Nasik against all opposition with his fellow dalits. He publicly used the water of Mahad tank. With this, he started democratic struggle against discrimination to attain social equality. This became the stepping stone for Dalit Movement.
4. Lack of awareness:
Dalits were deprived of educational facilities which lead to lack of awareness. Hence, exploitation atrocities mounted up. To get relieved of such situations and to create awareness, movements like Bahishkrith Hitakarini Sabha (1924), Dalit Sangharsh Samiti (1974) and others were initiated nationwide.
5. Political Backwardness:
Basically Dalits were kept away from political participation and decision making processes due to denial opportunities. Social boycott, exploitation, and subordination were responsible for political backwardness. To come out of these barriers, Dalits were forced to organise agitations and protests which finally got converted into movements.
6. Political implications:
Dalit movement is named as Dalit Andolan in Karnataka, Asprushya (untouchable) Aandolan in Maharashtra, Adi Dravida Andolan in Tamilnadu, Pulaya Aandolan in Kerala, Adi Dharma Andolan in Punjab and Namasudra Aandolan in West Bengal.
As a result of Dalit Movements, in the post Independence period, several measures were taken to improve the status of Dalits. The Constituation of India has provided many provisions for the upliftment of Dalits to bring them into the main stream. Many rights have been incorporated to empower Dalits.
Describe the political implication of feminist movement.
Feminist movement tries to overcome women exploitation and atrocities. In this behalf various measures have been taken for the empowerment of women as follows:
1. Constitutional opportunities:
Article 14,15, 15(3), 16, 34(A), 39(B) and 42 of the Constitution of India provides for the removal of inequality and discrimination based on gender.
2. Legislative measures:
Some legislative measures have been taken to eradicate gender based inequality. For example, Rape is a criminal offence under IPC Section 376, kidnapping and using women for illegal purpose is an offence under IPC Section 363-373. Torture for dowry is prohibited under IPC Section 498-A.
3. Other legislative measures:
Family Court Act 1954, Special Marriage Act 1954, Hindu Marriage Act 1955, The Dowry Prohibition Act 1961, Protection of Women against Domestic Violence Act 2005 and Abolition of Child Marriage Act 2006 have been enforced to protect the interests of women.
4. Special privileges for women:
National Women Commission was established in 1992 to recommend the government for the improvements of women.
5. Reservation in local bodies:
Through 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts, 33% of seats are reserved for women in Local Body Elections.
6. National policy of the women empowerment:
Department of Women and Child Welfare under the Secretariat of Human Resource Development framed a National Policy for the empowerment of women.
Explain the causes for communalism.
1. Policy of the British India:
The discriminatory policies of the East India Company regarding divide and rule, destroyed the unity between Hindus and Muslims. It manifested in the Sepoy Mutiny (1857). During the period of Viceroy Lord Curzon, Bengal was divided (1905) on the basis of religion. Communal electorate for Muslims was introduced during the period of Lord Minto. All these intensified the cause of communalism.
2. Hind-Muslim Nationalism:
Communal organizations were formed by separatists. In 1906, Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha came into existence. Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was called as ‘Muslim Gokhale’ of India was brainwashed by the Britishers. He became the champion of the two nation theory based on religion. Extremists of the Indian National Congress began to assert their demands. These developments created suspicion and distrust between Hindus and Muslims before Independence.
3. Communal Riots:
Large scale communal riots took place in India after Independence. Religious minorities both in India and Pakistan became victims during this situation and were attacked and tortured. Later communal riots occurred in Bhagalpur, Meerut, Kanpur, Lucknow, Ayodhya, Ahmadabad, Mumbai and in many other places.
The demolition of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya by a mob on 6th December 1992, largely contributed for the animosity between Hindus and Muslims and the successive events intensified the mistrust between these communities.
4. Politically manipulated:
In India many issues are politically manipulated by leaders for their selfish gain. This leads to hatred among the communities.
5. Communality in organization:
Different communities in India have established their own organizations based on communality, to support particular political parties in their own interest.
How terrorism is a commination to democracy? Explain.
Terrorism is commination to Democracy:
a. Disruption of governance:
Terrorist organisations are disrupting the democratic governance in the nation. They are indulging in violent and insurgent activities which have targeted the government, top political leaders and officers and thereby erode the legitimacy of the elected government.
b. Disrespect for constitution:
Though the Constitution is the fundamental law of the country, the terrorist groups and organisations are violating the mandatory provisions of the law and involving terrorist activities.
c. Violation of human rights:
Terrorists have no respect on human rights. They kill and injure the innocent people, attack the leaders and target the public places.
d. Anti democratic activities:
Terrorists are always tries to destabilize the democratic system and disrupt the election process.
e. Obstacle to economic growth:
It also destroys the economic development of the country by diverting the huge amount of money towards curbing terrorist activities.
What are the demerits of coalition?
The demerits of coalition government are as follows:
a. Due to the presence of various party leaders believing in different ideologies and policies political consistency is difficult to achieve. Hence political instability persists.
b. As coalition is the result of mutual consent, heads of government have no say in the formation of their own cabinet and in the formation of national policies or programmes.
c. In the parliamentary system of government as each coalition partner has its own specific electorate and has assured specific schemes and programmes.
d. Collective responsibility is a casualty. The ministry has to act as a unit. But in coalition government, this cannot happen. Hence, no one shoulders the responsibility for mismanagement and maladministration.
e. Official secrecy cannot be maintained. Decisions taken in cabinet which are sensitive in nature are disclosed by its own signatories who cannot be curtailed by the government.
Explain the nature of crony capitalism.
Crony capitalism is a negative term used to refer to the business delaings carried out by the Government officers in a capitalist economy.
Nature of crony capitalism are as follows:-
1. Favours political authorities:
Crony capitalism is a system in which, close associates of the people in power who enact laws and execute policies, get favours that have large economic impact.
2. Cronies are rewarded with the provision:
to charge higher prices for their output, than would prevail in a competitive market. Funds are funnelled to the enterprises of cronies through government controlled banks.
3. Protection of assets:
Crony capitalism allows Government to guarantee a subset of asset holders that their property rights are protected. As long as their assets are protected, these asset holders will continue to invest as if there were universal protection of property rights.
4. Share in the rents generated by the asset holders:
The members of the Government or members of their families, share the rents generated by the asset holders. This may take the form of jobs, co-investments or even transfers of stock. Crony capitalism goes hand in hand with corruption.
5. The concentration of economic Power:
A few business groups which are cronies, influence state policies and pool their assets in private corporate sectors. Such concentration gives birth to crony capitalism. Crony capitalism is an economical phenomenon with political consequences. In crony capitalism, the Government makes deals in closed doors, without public review and approval.
What are the concepts of international relation?
The core concepts of International relations pertaining to politics are as follows:
1. State Sovereignty:
Jean Bodin has described the concept of Sovereignty in his work “De Republica”. He emphasizes on the state Sovereignty within their territorial jurisdiction. No State can dictate others and all States are equal in matters of status, dignity, and honour. For instance, India under the British imperialism lost its sovereignty and gained its statehood only in 1947. Iraq during the Gulf war in 1990, is an example for aggression on the Sovereignty.
2. National Interests:
It is the action of the State in relation to other States. As Frankel opined, it refers to the aspiration of the state. The determinants of national interest are qualities of personalities and ideals of the decision-makers.
3. Power Blocs:
With the beginning of the cold war, two power blocs emerged, i.e., USA and USSR. President of U.S. Harry S. Truman believed in the spread of democracy whereas the Warsaw Pact under Soviet policy sought the spread of Communism. Capitalistic ideology spread in UK, France, Germany, and Communist ideology spread in Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungery.
Polarities in international relations refer to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bi-polarity during the cold war between the two superpowers.
The disintegration of the USSR has led to uni-polarity with the United States as the superpower. With rapid economic growth in 2010, China became the world’s second-largest economy. Combined with the respectable international position, China has emerged as a major power in the multi-polar world.
5. Balance of Power:
The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of States as actors in international relations, with its emphasis on the cultivation of power and the utilization of power for resolving the problems. Morgenthau used the term ‘Balance of Power’ as an approximately equal distribution of power. It is an inseparable part of the power politics.
Explain briefly the basic principles of Indian Foreign Policy.
The basic principles of foreign policy are Non-Alignment. After the II World War, the world war divided into two military blocs, one led by the USA and another by USSR. Many countries blocs. But India was not aligned to any of the military blocs. India was the first country to speak of non-alignment and major contributor to the emergence of the Non-Align Movement.
Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister of India, Gen. Sukarno President of Indonesia, Josif Broz Tito President of Yugoslavia Kwame Nkrumah Prime Minister of Ghana and Gamal Abdel Nasser Leader of Egypt were the founders of this movement. The first summit of NAM which was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1961 with 25 member countries.
At present, it has 128 members. Recent NAM Summit concluded in August 2012 at Tehran Iran. Venezuela will host the next 17th NAM Summit in 2015.
2. Opposition of Imperialism and colonialism:
As a colony of the British over 200 years, India firmly stood in opposition to any form of imperialism and colonialism. India. played a major role in liberating the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa from colonial shackles.
3. Faith in the UN:
As a founding members of 6N, India has played a major role in achieving world peace. India as a major democratic country in the world is collaborating with UN agencies viz: UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNIDO. Indian foreign policy supports and reguards the UN as an agency for world peace.
It has always advocated for peaceful settlement of international disputes within the purview of the UN. India has contributed its troops to the UN peacekeeping force operations in the tense and conflicated areas and different regions, especially in diffcult missions of the world.
4. Fairness of means:
With the inspiration of Gandhian ideas, India has always emphasized fair means in resolving international disputes. India has supported peaceful and non-violent methods and opposed the war, aggression and power politics anywhere in the world. In the Asian relations conference, New Delhi on 2nd April of 1947.
Indian foreign policy expresses full faith in peaceful means for the settlement of dispues. India repudiates the use of force, it belives in peace achieved through peaceful means a good end through right and just means.
5. Anti – aparthied and racial discrimination:
India has stood by the principles of racial equality and opposes discrimination on the basis of race, regligion caste, colour and sex. India opposed and rejected the doctrine of white supremacy, it has been the most outspoken critic of racism.
Equal and honourable treatment of all in the world in India’s goal. India is always against of the policy of apartheid followed in the South Africa and it’s broke off diplomatic relations with it as a protest to social discrimination.
Panchasheel continues to be another fundamental principle of Indian foreign policy. An agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Zhou-en-Lai on April, 29th 1954, sought to govern the relationship between India and China on the basis of five principles.
- Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-agression.
- Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefits.
- Peaceful co-existence.
It is a principle of peaceful co-existence with other nations, it guided the basis of relationship between 1954-57 marked by numerous visits and exchanges. This period is described as the Sino-Indian honeymoon.
7. Tie with the commonwealth:
Although India gets its independence from British imperalism she decided to remain within the common-wealth of Nations. The British Queen is the Head of the Commonwealth, it is made up of Britain and other countries which had once been her colonies, Traditionally India had many economic ties with the UK and other member countries of the Commonwealth Association.
In many commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGM) strident declarations were passed regarding the problem of social discrimination, apartheid, violation of human rights and other issues of democracy in the member countries and the world. The 23rd CHOGM was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka in November 2013. Next Summit will be designated at Tanzania in 2015.
Major concern of India’s foreign policy in the post-cold war period is disarmament and arms race in the world. As a leader of NAM, India established beyond doubt that arms race is at the expense of human development. Expenditure on arms and ammunitions depletes distorts economic progress, programs for removal of poverty, eradication of diseases spread of education and easy availability of basic needs.
9. Sympathy towards divided Countries:
Partition of India and Pakistan due to divide and rule policy of British in 1947, resulted in terrible communal riots, emormous sufferings of people who moved out of their homes and had to begin their life again as refugees.
Because of the bitter experience of this incident. India is sympathetic towards the bifurcation of Palestine in Arab, South and North Korea, East and West Germany (Now unified) and Vietnam.
10. Concern towards small countries:
India’s foreign policy emphasizes its conem towards small countries of the world. India supported Malasia (1948), Ghana (1957) and Bangladesh (1971) to encourage and emerge as independent nations. Most of the decolonized territories are mini and microstates, small both in area and popultion, got the membership in NAM because of India’s support.
Since its independence, India is extending economic assistence to small countries in the world and always in the forefront of reconstruction and rehabilitation of the war-torn or small nations affected by natural disasters.
11. Affinity towards Afro-Asian Countries:
Though India has the relations with all countries of the world, she has special affinity towards the countries in Asia and Africa which are very near and following the principles followed by her.
India supported at the freedom struggle of African countries e.g. Namibia became independent in March 1990, Nelson Mandela the first black leader became the President of South Africa in May 1994. In the first Afro-Asian countries summit at Bandung in 1955.
12. Against Cold War:
Cold war began with the formation of two power blocs at the end of II world war viz. US and USSR. Rivalry between them resulted in the emergence of many military alliances eg: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) ANZUS (Austrialia New Zealand United States alliance) SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organisation). Bagdad Pact, CENTO (Central Treaty Organization). As a leader of NAM, it stayed away from the two blocs.
India’s policy was neither negative nor passive, as Pandit Nehru declared to the world that NAM was notapolicy of ‘fleeing away!’ India tried to reduce the rivalry between two blocs and chose to involve other members of the non-aligned group, in this mission. With the disintegration of USSR the cold war ended.
IV. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)
Describe the electoral reforms in India.
Elections in India is huge and complex. The electoral process also elaborate. In the course of the last 50 years the election process has shown a number of shortcomings which have arisen out of the politico-social, economic and cultural conditions prevailing in our country.
Caste and religious factors have become predominant. Vote banks, rigging, booth-capturing, proxy voting, etc., have become common. In view of these, several electoral reforms have been taken up in recent years. They may be outlined as follows:-
b. To provide representation to the country, the voting age was reduced from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
c. To overcome various problems arising in the election process, Electronic Voting Machines have been introduced.
d. To discourage candidates who are not serious in contesting in the elections and to avoid multiplicity of such candidates, the deposit amount has been increased.
e. To deal with proxy voting, identity cards with photographs is being issued to all voters by the Election Commission.
g. In recognition of the voters right to information, the Election Commission has decided on mandatory disclosure of their antecedents by the candidates.
h. To curb the role of money in elections and to enable the service minded persons to contest in the elections, Indrajit Gupta Committee recommended for state funding of elections.
i. In order to ensure free and fair elections, the candidates should furnish the details about their educational qualifications, movable and immovable property, and criminal background.
j. In order to promote the elections more trustworthy, Election Commission of India has introduced VVPAT and VSDU devices along with EVMs during pooling.
Discuss the various components of Nation building.
The process of Nation-building started with the attainment of independence. The leaders of modern India initiated the process in the right direction as they worked out the details in an orderly and systematic way. However, during implementation, they had to face numerous problems associated with national reconstruction resulting in a slow process.
The process of nation-building is an offshoot of the concept of nation-states. The idea of nation-states emerged after the signing of the treaty of West Phalia (1648) by Western Countries. The people of the common religious and traditional backgrounds living in a definite territory with like-mindedness and ‘we’ feeling form the nation. Common language, culture, and history aspirations help the common people to form nationality.
1. Components to community support:
To realise the process of nation-building, collective support and endeavour of the people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Disciplined work culture and patriotic feeling also contribute for nation-building. In a democracy, people are the kingmakers. Hence, they are expected to elect competent and honest representatives. They formulate a sound public opinion on important national issues. As J.S. Mill said ‘Eternal vigilance is the price of democracy’.
2. Good Governance:
Good governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility, and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Governance. India is one of the leading countries in the world in the adoption of the system-of e-governance.
3. Committed Leadership:
History depicts many examples of committed leadership. Eg. US President F. D. Roosevelt solved the crisis of Economic depression by adopting the New Deal Policy and US became a superpower at global level after the II World War. In India Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of nation-building.
He formulated goals for nation-building and introduced planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India. Hence Nehru is called the Architect of Modern India.
4. Political Culture:
Political Culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes, and behaviour towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behaviour to national reconstruction. Leaders have to embody the principles of national interest, public service, probity, and statesmanship.
5. Power Sharing:
To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The concentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families leads to the emergence of authoritarianism and dictatorship.
As H.J. Laski rightly puts it “A decision which affects all must be decided by all” To attain this reservation is provided to the SCs and STs and women at different levels of Government. It ensures social justice which is the foundation of socio-economic democracy.
6. Universal Education:
For the development of a nation universal education is of paramount importance. It enables the person to understand his potentiality and strengthens dignity. As Gandhi said, “Education is the light of life”. It encourages people to develop the spirit of enquiry the ability to analyze the national problems and to work for national progress.
Education also equips the people to shun fanaticism, parochialism, communalism, casteism and religious fundamentalism. The Right To Education Act 2009 implemented in 2010 is a step in this direction.
7. National Character:
Nationalism and patriotism are the foundations to build a national character. Each country has its distinct national character which denotes one’s nativity-as the conservatism of UK, ‘Land of Liberty’ of US, Ethnicity of Africa, Aboriginal of Australia, cultural diversity of India. Love and respect for one’s country and national symbols such as national flag, national anthem, and national monuments are the prerequisites.
One has to acquire knowledge about the history of his motherland and its contributions to human civilizations. Realizing the significance of national character, the makers of the Indian constitution have asserted the supremacy of popular sovereignty in the preamble reading with the expression.” We the people of India”.
8. Mass Media:
Mass Media is regarded as the Fourth Estate in democracy as it plays a vital role in nation-building. It highlights the omissions and commissions of the government and acts as a bridge between the government and the public. It . is an effective instrument of political socialization, modernization, and development. In India, the ‘Freedom of Expression’ is a fundamental right under Art. 19 of the Constitution.
9. Responsible Intelligentsia:
The contribution of intellectuals is recognized all over the world. Research and innovations in important areas of human life have contributed to the national development. In India the development in the field of social sciences, M.N. Srinivas, Amartya Sen, S. Shettar, Gail Omvedt, Kancha, Ilaya, Vandana. Shiva, S.N. Balagangadhara, AshishNandy, Rajiv Malhotra and others.
In Science and Technology Sir M. Vishveshwaraiah, Sir C.V. Raman, Dr. Raja Ramanna, Dr. M.G.K. Menon, Dr. CNR Rao. Dr. U.R. Rao, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, and others have greatly contributed for India’s present position at global level.
10. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically, Sardar Vallabha Bai Patel, Vinoba Bhave, Lai Bahadhur Shastri, J.B. Kriplani, Acharya Narendra Dev played a key role in the national integration. November 19th is being observed as National integration day, the birthday of Smt. Indira Gandhi.
Explain the importance and political implications of Globalisation.
Globalisation is the process of inter grating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction. Integration and interdependence among people and organisation across borders. The strongest manifestion of Globalisation has been the increasing economics inter gration among the countries in trade and investment.
An important attribute of globalization is the increasing degree of openness, which has three dimensions, ie., international trade, international investment, and international finance. It involves creation of networks and activities transcending economic, social and geographical boundaries.
The Economy of India had undergone significant policy shifts in the beginning of the 1990’s. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the liberalization, privatizaton, and globalisation(LPG) model.
The chain of reforms that took place with regard to business, manufacturing and financial industries targeted at the strengthening the economy of the country to a more proficient level. These economic reforms had influenced the overall economic growth of the country in a significant manner.
In brief, the salient points of Globalisation are
- Transfer of technology
- Concept of a global village
- Mobility of labour force
- Global competition resulting in better performance
- Outsourcing and
- Optimum utilization of human resources.
The political implications of globalisation are as follows.
1. Power subjugation:
The effects of globalisation brought lots of changes in the world economy. For small countries it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the soverignty of a country in totality.
2. Affects the Soverignty:
As a result of globalisation in the fields of economy, trade, transportation etc., the sovereign countries are bound by decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the soverignty of a country in totally.
3. Cultural Invasion:
Culture is a complex whole and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalisation in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.
4. Enslavement of Lifestyle:
Globalisation has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behaviour, mutual relationships, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalisation.
5. Elimination of subsidies:
The major impact of globalisation is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture in a phased manner. The worst-hit are the peasants who are the back bone of the country.
6. Political Instability:
The impact of globalisation mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country. Hence development comes to a standstill. Thus globalisation as a process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy has gone a long way.
Describe the India-ASEAN area of co-operation.
The ASEAN was established on 8th August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the founding fathers of ASEAN.
Indian-ASEAN areas of co-operation are:
1. Functional Co-operation:
ASEAN-India functional co-operation is diverse and includes co-operation across a range of sectors, such as trade, science & technology, agriculture, environment, Human Resource development, space science, new and renewable energy, information and communication technology, telecommunications, transport and infrastructure, tourism, culture, health, and pharmaceuticals.
2. Economic Co-operation:
The ASEAN- India FTA will see tariff liberalization of over 90 percent of products traded between the two dynamic regions including the so-called “special products” such as palm oil (crude and refined), coffee, black tea and pepper. Tariffs on over 4,000 product lines will be eliminated at the earliest by 2016.
ASEAN – India Trade in Goods Agreement was signed on 13th August, 2009 at the ASEAN – India Economic Ministerial Meeting in Bangkok.
3. Peace and Security Co-operation:
ASEAN and India commemorated the 20th anniversary of dialogue level partnership and the 10th anniversary of Summit-level partnership with a Commemorative Summit in New Delhi under the theme ASEAN – India Partnership for peace and shared prosperity in December 2012.
4. Tourism Sector:
The 4th ASEAN – India Tourism Ministers Meeting was held in Vietnam in January 2013. ASEAN-India tourism website (www. Indiaasean.org) was launched. ASEAN and India are also working on enhancing private sector engagements. Details on the re-activation of the ASEAN- India business Council (AIBC), the holding of the ASEAN-India Business Fair (AIBF) are being worked out by officials.
At the third ASEAN-India Summit, the parties concerned signed a partnership for peace, progress and shared prosperity. At the sixth Summit, India announced setting up of an India the ASEAN green fund. At seventh Summit, India announced contribution of US $ 50 million to ASEAN-India co-operation fund.
At the 11th ASEAN – India summit, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, welcomed India’s ‘Look East’ policy and the decision to set up a separate mission for the Association of ASEAN. The past three years have witnessed remarkable progress in the implementation of the plan of Action.
V. Answer any tw o of the follow ing questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write about the ‘Independence Day’ celebration in your college.
Independence day, a memorable occasion for the nation was celebrated in our college this year also. Under the guidance of the teachers, students had decorated the college grounds one day before and erected a podium, as well as a stage for the cultural programmes.
Sri Seetharamaiah, the octogenerian freedom fighter was invited to be our chief guest and he was there right on time at 8.00 A.M. Our Principal and senior staff members welcomed the Chief Guest and other dignitaries with garlands and bouquets. After the invocation and the prayer, the function took off on a smooth note.
After the hoisting of the Tricolour National flag by the Chief Guest, the President of the College Student Union read out the welcome speech. Our Principal presided over the function. Sri Seetharamaiah in his speech, highlighted the great ideals and values and sacrifices of our freedom fighters.
There was a march-past by the NCC cadets, followed by the school band. There were some cultural programmes like singing, a mime act, monoacting and a skit about the Jalianwalabagh massacre. The programmes were much appreciated. The function came to an end with the vote of thanks and sweet distribution. We all dispersed.
List out the present Indian states and Union territories.
At present there are 29 States and 7 Union territories in India.
|Jammu & Kashmir
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli
|Daman and Diu
Explain the Kashmir issue in India-Pakistan relation.
In India’s perspective Kashmir is an integral part of the republic of India and to Pakistan, it is a disputed territory. The argument of Pakistan on Kashmir is that, since the partition of the country was done on religious basis and majority of, population are Muslims, Kashmir should be part of Pakistan. This argument failed to recognize the following facts:
- Parition was done of the British Indian Provinces & and not of the Indian princely states.
- National conference was the only major political party in Kashmir, which was affiliated to Congress. It was opposed to Pakistan and had faith in secular politics.
- The Indian princely states had the freedom to join either India or Pakistan.
- India was a secular state consisting of multireligious population.
So, Kashmir formally decided to join India after the invasion of its territory by Pakistani tribals supported by the Pakistan Army.
In October 1947, Kashmir was invaded by tribal infiltrators of Pakistan. This forced the Maharaja to seek Indian military help. India reacted positively after ‘Instrument of Accession’ was signed on 26th October 1947. To resolve the crisis, the Constituent Assembly of India made a special provision through Art. 370, to provide a separate constitution to the state along with other provisions.
In 1951, the Constituent Assembly met in the state to frame a Constitution. In February 1954, the accession of the state to India was ratified by the constitution, legalising it. In November 1956. it adopted a constitution legalising the status of J &K as a unit of the Indian Union.
Write about any one of the Chief Ministers of Karnataka.
Sri Siddaramaiah is acknowledged as the leader of the backward class and minorities in the Karnataka social strata. He was born on 12th August 1948 and was the 22nd Chief Minister of Karnataka from 2013 to 2018. He was the first Chief Minister to complete a full 5-year term in the top post in Karnataka in 40 years.
Siddaramaiah was a member of various Janata Parivar fuctions for several years. Earlier as a Janatha Dal (Secular) leader, he was Deputy Chief. Minister of Karnataka on two occasions. On 13th May 2013, he was sworn in as the Chief Minister of Karnataka.
Siddaramaiah is also regarded as the leader of ‘Ahinda’. His programmes are most popular and familar with relates to the sections of below poverty line. During the time of his rule as a Chief Minister, his main popular programmes are Anna Bhagya, Ksheera Bhagya, Shaadi Bhagya, Mythri Bhagya, Indira Canteen, Arogya Bhagya, etc. still he remained as a unquestionable leader in Indian National Congress.