Social and Religious Reformation Movements Class 10 Questions and Answers KSEEB 10th Social Science
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable answers:
The nineteenth century is called as ___________ period.
reformation and new awakening
Raja Ram Mohan Roy started ___________ periodical.
The founder of Prathana samaj is ___________
Dr Atma Ram Panduranga
The young Bengal movement was started by ___________
The Guru of Swami Vivekananda was ___________
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
The Anglo-Oriental college was established at ___________
II. Discuss in groups and answer the following questions:
What are the preaching of Brahmo Samaj?
1. Advocated Monotheism
2. Opposed meaningless rituals
3. Every person should live with dignity and no law or ritual should violate this provision.
4. Brahmo Samaj intended to assure equality to women by opposing Polygamy. It advocated for a share in property to honour dignity of life to widow. It also opposed Child Marriage.
5. Bramho Samaj a decalred that, one can take good things from anywhere. It also declared that Upanishads and Vedas also advocated this principles. It was open to receive good thoughts even from the West. It gave importance to English Education.
Discuss the declaration of Dayananda Sarswathi’s ‘Back to Vedas’.
Dayananda Saraswathi received education in Sanskrit. At the age of 21, he left home and travelled across India for fifteen years. He witnessed the various maladies and oppressive religious practices all over India. He realized that the remedies to the various maladies of India are present in the Vedas. Hence, he declared “Back to Vedas”. He believed that only the Vedas were authentic. He rejected the caste system. He encouraged inter caste marriage and rejected Child Marriage. He proclaimed that all men and women were equal. He advised one and all to study Vedas and ancient sacred texts and follow and preach them.
Discuss the reformation advocated by Sathyashodak Samaj.
A. Mahatma Jyotiba Pule started the “Satya Shodak Samaja’ to provide equal rights to non-brahim class and women. He opened schools for shudras and girls. Although he belonged to Mali caste he allowed people from all castes including untouchables to draw water from his well. He encouraged his wife Savtri Bhai Pule and gave her an equal opportunity to serve the down trodden, which was his main principle i. e, all men and women are equal to promote the education of girls, the Samaj started schools and hostels for girls and protection houses for widows and abandoned women. The Satya Shodak Samaja worked for establishing a society based on equality.
Discuss the aims of Aligarh Movement.
AIMS OF ALIGARH MOVEMENT.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan started Mohammadan Liberty Society in 1863 to reform the Muslim community who were against English education. Mohammadan Liberty Society started discussions on the issues related to religion, social and political issues. The society encouraged upper and middle class youth to participate in the discussions. These discussions made them realize the value of English education.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan preached that the Quran was the only authoritative book on Islam. He advocated the interpretation of one’s religion according to the changing times. The Society fought against traditions, superstitions, ignorance and irrationalities. Such as the Parada system for Muslim women. The Mohammadan Anglo-oriental college in Aligarh was started to spread western scientific and cultural ideas.
Explain the views of Ramakrishna Mission.
VIEWS OF RAMAKRISHNA MISSION
The Ramakrishna mission was started by Swami Vivekananda at Belur, Calcutta in 1897 to spread the teaching of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
- To preach the importance of Indian Philosophy to the world.
- To establish a castless society
- To eradicate exploitation, poverty, illiteracy and social division among Indians
- To educate people first and the let themselves seek reformation.
- To oppose untouchability and the idea of Superemacy based on the caste system
- To provide spiritual growth among all the people.
Explain how Swami Vivekananda was a source of inspiration for youngsters?
In order to spread the teachings of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Swami Vivekananda founded Ramakrishna mission. Vivekananda (1863-1902) was born in Kyastha family in Calcutta. He studied both Western and Eastern Philosophies. After studying the Indian philosophy from different prespectives, he started preaching the importance of Indian philosophy to Indians as well as Westerners.
He roamed around India for about five years after the death of his Guru. Due to this, he could understand the social reality of India. He worked to establish a casteless society as he could see that the society was deeply involved with caste based discrimination. He also noticed exploitation, poverty, illiteracy and division among the Indians. Vivekananda believed that people should be educated first, and then they themselves seek reformation.
He wanted legal institutions to implement appropriate rules to support reformation. He also Wanted people to stop following the western ideals blindly. He believed it is the duty of the religion to provide light. Without this, religion is itself of no use, declared Vivekananda. The one who responds to the poor is Mahatma, and the one who doesn’t is Duratma. He opposed caste system, untouchability and the idea of supremacy based on caste system.
“We should take the humanity to such a place where there are no Quran, Vedas and Bible. Still we need to attain this by attaining unity among Quran, Vedas and Bible… In our country, there is a need for unity between Hindu and Islam, a Vedic mind in Islamic body is the only path of progress”. Swami Vivekananda’s Works. Series 7, Volume 238.
The Westerners could understand the cultural richness of India with the help of speech delivered by Swami Vivekananda at Chicago city in World Religious Congress in 1893. He attracted the attention of the listeners while speaking at ‘Congress of Religion’ held at Paris in 1900. His speeches mirror his nationalist ideas. Interestingly, he had visited Mysore before his visit to Chicago as a guest of Chamaraja Wadyer X.
As per the suggestion of Swami Vivekananda, Chamaraja Wadayer X started schools for untouchable children. Swami Vivekananda wrote books on Jnana Yoga, Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga and Bhakti Yoga. His thoughts provided impetus to freedom struggle and he asserted that freedom includes social equality also.
What were the reformation activities of Annie Besant?
REFROMATION ACTIVITIES OF ANNIE BESANT.
Annie Besant was an active member of the Theosophical Society’ in 1889. She travelled to India in 1893. She had a thorough knowledge of Vedanta philosophy. She was know as ‘Swetha Saraswathi’.
- Annie Besant translated the Bagvath Geeta to English.
- She opened schools with the aim of educating all.
- She started Central Hindu Benaras College in 1898 O She started two periodicals “New India and ‘Common Wealth’
- She started ‘Home Rule Leage’ in 1916 and initiated ‘Home Rule Movement’ in Madras.
- She was also an active participant in the Indian Struggle for Independence
- She became the first woman President of Indian National Congress in 1917
Explain the Contributions of Sri Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam.
‘Dharma Paripalana Yogam’ movement was started by Shri Narayana Guru in 1903
- Dharma Paripalana Yogam started the reformation movement for Elhava’s of Kerala.
- It built temples for the backward communities as they were denied entry into temples.
- It started the Viakom Movement’, a temple entry movement
- The SNDPY facilitated the entry of. low caste people into the Guruvayoor temple in Kerala.
Make a list of main aspects of Periyar Movement.
E V Ramaswami Naicker (Periyar) started the Self Respect Movement in 1926
- The Periyar Movement rejected the racial supremacy of Arya and Brahmin
- The Movement was based on the Dravida Racial Identity
- It promoted Tamil as the language of Dravidians
- He rejected Shri Rama as the Vedic leader and accepted Ravana as the Dravidian leader.
- He championed equality and critized caste and gender discrimination.
- He participated in temple entry movement held at Vaikom of Kerala
- He started an association called Dravida kalagam’
- The Non- Brahminical movement started by Ayonthidas and T M Nayar was turned into a cultural movement by Periyar.
- The Periyar movement’s goal was to establish an equal society where there will be no inequality based on caste, religion and gender.
Additional Questions and Answers
Why was there a need for social reformation in the 19th century?
The Indian society was mired in discrimination among its members. Many communities likes Shudras and women lacked basic social rights. Such as gender discrimination, Sati sytem, widow remarriage restriction system. Hence there was need for social and religious reformation.
How did the ‘Young Bengal Movement’ create new thinking across Bengal?
The young Bengal movement held discussions and debates on issues like nature, humanism, God and other various topics. Derozio worked towards spreading the message that only rational thinking would liberate people from the clutches of superstitions and social discrimination. He was an advocate of Women Rights and opposed caste based discrimination. Many of his students who had come from traditional families were deeply influenced by Derozio’s thoughts and joined their hands in spreading the movement across Bengal.
List the aims of Arya Samaj?
Arya Samaj had the following aims
- All Hindus should believe in one formless God
- No one is a Shudra or Brahmin by birth and caste based system was rejected.
- Encouragement to inter-caste marriages
- Rejection of polygamy and child marriage
- Men and Women are equal
- One should study Vedas and other ancient sacred texts and preach them.
What was the aim of ‘Shuddi Movement’?
The existence of caste and superstitions had pushed people towards religions. In this critical juncture, Dayananda Saraswathi reinterpreted Vedas and advocated gender equality and caste equality in order to integrate Hindu society. There were opportunities to exit from Hinduism but no opportunity to enter it. In order to bring back people from other religions, Dayananda Saraswathi started Shuddi Movement.
What was the main aim of the Theosophical society?
The main aim of the society was to do a comparative study of various religions, philosophies and science. Another goal was to discover the indomitable spirit hidden in the human. It declared that Universal Brotherhood is important. The Society took its basic principles from Hindu sacred scriptures like Veda, Upanishads, Sankya Yoga and Vedanta Philosophy and spread these basic principles. The society attempted to find solutions to present problems by studying the ancient Indian thoughts, Philosophies and theoretical ideals. Hence, the society basically tired for the reformation of Hindu Religion.
Multiple Choice Questions and Answers
The nineteenth century in India is considered as
A. Period of Reformation
B. Period of Political instability
C. Period of Religious awakening
D. Period of Social Reformation
a. Period of Reformation
Who commented that Raja Ram Mohan Roy as the harbinger of modern India
a. M K Gandhi
b. Bal Gangardhar Tilak
c. Lord Wellesley
d. Rabindranath Tagore
d. Rabindranath Tagore
Choose the correct option
A. Derozio: Athmiya Sabha
B. Dr Athma Panduranga: Prarthana Samaj
C. Gow protection Associations: Theosophical Society
D. Self Respect Movement: Periyar
d. Self Respect movement: Periyar
The Aligarh Muslim University was formerly known as
A. Mohammadan Liberty society
B. Aligarh College
C. Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College
D. Academic Association.
c. Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College
An young Indian social reformer made a rousing speech at world religions congress in 1893 who was he?
A. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
B. Swami Dayananda Saraswathi
C. Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
D. Swami Vivekananda
d. Swami Vivekananda
The Central Hindu Benaras college was established by
A. Narayana Guru
D. Rajaram Mohan Roy
b. Annie Besant