The First War of Indian Independence (1857) 10th Notes KSEEB Social Science
→ The oppressive policies of the British to extend their rule over India led to the ‘First Indian Freedom Struggle’ in 1857.
→ The major cause of the ‘First Indian Freedom Struggle’ are
A. Political Causes: Under the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ policy, the British annexed many kingdoms into their empire
B. Economic cause:
- Industrial revolution in west led to decline in Indian industries and rendered many people unemployed.
- High customs duty on Indian Goods exported to England
- Oppressive land taxes impoverished the farmers
C. Administrative Causes: oppressive civil and criminal laws which discriminated against Indians.
D. Military Causes:
- Indian soldiers in the British army were discriminated in status, salary and promotions.
- The rumor that the bullets of the Royal Enfield guns were greased with the fat of pig or cow enraged the Hindus, who believed that cows are sacred and the Muslims who were prohibited the consumption of pigs, was the immediate cause for the Uprising.
→ During the unrest in Barackpur, Mangal Pandey shot dead a British officer.
→ At the military base in Meerut, Indian soldiers refused to use the greased bullets and rose in revolt
→ Nana Sahib of Khanpur, Tanya Tope, Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi joined the Freedom struggle
→ The First war of Indian Independence failed due to:
- Disunity among Indian Soldiers.
- Mutiny lacked direction and leadership and discipline and organization.
→ The immediate consequence of the Indian Revolt was that the governance of East India Company came to an end.
→ The British Indian empire came under the direct rule of the British Government in 1858.
→ The British realized that they needed to involve Indians in the process of legislation and implemented the “Policy of Association’.
→ PATHETIC: Pitiful
→ TALUKADARAS: The head of a Taluk
→ BARACKPUR: British Military base
→ MANGAL PANDEY: A fierce Indian Revolutionary
→ MUTINY: An open rebellion against authority by soldiers.
→ 1857: First Indian Freedom struggle or Sepoy Mutiny
→ 1858: End of the rule of East India Company over British empire in India. British India empire passed into the direct rule British Government by the order of Queen of England.